Being prepared in delivering first aid measures is definitely an advantage. One of the first aid skills that you should be familiar with is how to apply a bandage. It is important to note that there are key points to bear in mind in bandage application.
- Ensure that the individual is comfortable and inform him/her what you are doing
- Make sure that you will work on the side of the injury without the need to lean across the body
- Always keep the injured body part properly supported in a position it will be when the bandage is on.
- Ensure that the bandage used has the right size. Remember that various parts of the body require different widths.
- If possible, do not cover toes or finger when a limb is being bandaged so that you can readily check the circulation.
- Apply the bandage in a firm manner, but not too tight and secure the end by folding it over and tying a knot in the end. You can also utilize a safety pin, bandage clip or adhesive tape. Apply the bandage in a firm manner, but not too tight and secure the end by folding it over and tying a knot in the end. You can also utilize a safety pin, bandage clip or adhesive tape.
- Once the bandage is one, ask the individual if it is too tight and check the circulation by pressing on the skin or fingernail until it turns pale. If the color does not return right away, the bandage is too tight, thus you have to slacken it a bit. The limbs can swell right after an injury, thus you have to check the circulation every 10 minutes after the application.
Types of bandage
There are 3 main types of bandages that you should be familiar with – tubular, roller and triangular.
These are used to hold dressings on toes or fingers or provide support to injured joints. Tubular bandages are made out of seamless fabric tube. There are also elasticized varieties that are placed over joints such as the ankle. The ones that are made out of tubular gauze can be placed over toes or fingers but could not provide pressure to control bleeding.
Before applying a tubular wrap over the injury, you have to cut it to a smaller size. Some bandages have a specialized device that is applied over the injured area to help with the application of the bandage.
Roller bandages are available in 3 types.
- Those made out of open-weave material to allow ventilation but does not place pressure on the wounds and could not support the joints
- Elasticized bandages that mold to the body shape are used to secure dressings as well as support soft tissue injuries are utilized to provide sturdy support to injured joints
When a roller type is applied, keep the rolled part above the injury and the unrolled part below. Start by wrapping twice around the injured area to hold the end in place. Work up the limb by winding the bandage in spiral turns to ensure that every layer covers one-third to two-thirds of the previous layers. Finish by wrapping the bandage around another time and securing the end.
The triangular bandages can be utilized as large dressings such as slings to support a limb or to secure a dressing in place.
When this type is used to provide support to a lower limb or large-sized dressing, it should be folded in half in a horizontal manner so the pointed edge of the triangle is in contact with the center of the long edge. It should be folded in half again in the same direction to create a broad strip.
Everyone should have a first aid kit somewhere in their house and/or car if possible. However, if you find yourself in extenuating circumstances, there are certain things you should still be prepared to do.
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It's worth pointing out that nothing stated here is an acceptable substitute or a replacement for having proper first aid gear and training. Treating burns, broken bones, or bleeding without proper equipment should be the backup of your backup of your backup plan. That being said, planning for every contingency is just good practice. So if you find yourself in the middle of the woods without your first aid kit, and obvious exits are North, South, and Dennis, here's what to do.
Stop Bleeding Without Bandages
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If you're dealing with smaller cuts and scrapes where blood is flowing, the first order of business is to clean the wound. Wash it off with any clean water source you have available. Next, you'll want something to soft and absorbent to place on the wound. Paper towels and napkins can do, as well as strips of clothing if they're clean. It's important to make sure you don't infect the wound you just cleaned. For tiny cuts, you can also use super glue to quickly seal the fleshy fissure .
Use Super Glue to Quickly Seal Cuts and Blisters
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Also, if you're in a pinch, you can use tampons in place of cotton balls . In what may be one of the most obvious-once-you-think-about-it hacks, tampons happen to be very good at soaking up blood. They're also useful for nosebleeds if you don't have any other options laying around.
Use a Tampon as an Emergency Bandage, Nosebleed Killer
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Once you've found a good absorption pad, you can use any form of tape to adhere the pad to the wound. If you don't have any tape, tie a piece of cloth tightly around the wound. Be careful not to cut off circulation, or make the knot too tight.
For larger wounds, you'll want to skip cleaning the wound, as it's more important to stem the loss of blood, rather than preventing infection (though both are important). With heavy blood loss, keep the wound elevated above the heart to slow down the flow, apply an absorption pad or your hands if nothing is available directly to the wound, and use pressure points to slow the flow of blood .
It's extremely important to know when to use a tourniquet . Using one should be a last resort option as it's designed to prevent death from loss of blood. Improper or inappropriate use of a tourniquet can result in damage to the cut off portion of a body and, depending on how long it's on, may even result in the need for an amputation. Keep this in mind before applying one.
Stabilize a Broken Bone
Broken bones can be extremely tricky, because you can cause more damage than you fix if you treat it improperly. For closed broken bones—that is, injuries where a bone is broken, but does not break through skin—the first thing to do is stabilize the wound. Do not try to straighten the bone if you can avoid it. While this needs to be done to heal, the bones inside the body are very sharp and can cut blood vessels, muscles, and cause all manner of nasty damage if you try to set the bone wrong.
Instead, keep the bone steady. Don't let it move if you can help it. Try to find something to stabilize the bone. If you're able to keep the person still and wait for help to come to you, try to keep the wound elevated above the heart to help prevent swelling. When you're far from civilization, you may need to create a splint using straight and sturdy sticks, fastened with rope or fabric to keep bigger breaks steady.
As much as possible, try to ice the break. This will help keep swelling down and prevent further internal damage. Place ice in a bag—never directly on the skin—and keep it on for twenty minutes, then off for twenty. Rinse and repeat. Rinsing optional.
For minor burns, the first thing you want to do is cool the affected area. Burns retain a lot of heat (for very obvious reasons) so the first thing to do is reduce the heat before more damage is done. Run the burned region under cool (but not freezing) water.
Once the burn has cooled down, you'll want to wrap it in something protective that won't stick. You want to give the burn enough air to breathe and keep any loose fibers or foreign objects from getting in it. Gauze is ideal, but you don't have any on you, right? In place of that, again paper towels or a clean cloth will work.
For second-degree or higher burns, try to get professional medical help as quickly as possible. Very small second-degree can be managed without help, but anything larger than a couple inches should be treated professionally as soon as it can. If you're dealing with a chemical burn, also be sure to clean off the burning chemicals. Use like methods to do the cleaning, too. If it's a dry powder, use a dry brush to clean it off. If it's a wet chemical, run it under water to rinse it off.
Relieve Pain Without Medication
Pain relief is going to be a very subjective case. Without medication or sedatives, treating pain for things like broken bones won't be very feasible. For minor pain like headaches or soreness, there are ways to minimize pain, or just generally keep your body healthy enough that it stays out of pain in the first place.
For starters, stay hydrated . It should go without saying, but we need plenty of water to live well. When you don't get enough fluids, muscles dry out, joints get creaky and your whole body gets tense. Water isn't a pain reliever in the same way aspirin is, and you can't just chug a gallon to make your sore back go away, but by getting into the habit, you can reduce long-lasting pain.
Another alternative is copious amounts of vitamin C . Several studies examining cancer treatments found that high concentrations of vitamin C can help reduce pain. Consuming extra vitamin C can sometimes help. A lack of vitamin D can also cause some pain, so look into eating some food rich in vitamin D as well.
Keep in mind, you're not popping pills to immediately reduce pain, you're treating underlying causes to make your body more healthy. If you're in pain, you might be able to get some small relief immediately, but more than anything you'll be helping your body be in a better condition to feel better overall.
Of course, if you're reading this now and no one around you is bleeding, in pain, or has broken bones, chances are you have time to prepare properly. There are plenty of guides out there for putting together first aid kits , so take a look at those. Also, the Red Cross offers an app with plenty of emergency first aid instructions and contact information , so download it and keep it handy.
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Bandages come in various shapes and sizes. Each bandage has been designed to best suit a specific injury. When applying a bandage, be careful not to touch the white sterile pad with your fingers, or with anything else that can contaminate it before it is applied to the wound.
These are the types of bandages I will address in this article:
- Strip bandage
- Fingertip bandage
- Knuckle bandage
- Butterfly closure
- Donut bandage
- Pressure bandages
- Gauze rolls
- 5 x 9 sterile gauze pad
- Triangular bandage
- Sterile burn sheets
- Tensor bandages
- Eye patch
Examples of sterile gauze pads are also shown below.
An EMT's Advice on What Should Be in a First Aid Kit
Strip Bandage Is the Most Common
The strip bandage is the most common type you will see in first aid kits. It is used for any small wound on a flat surface.
The fingertip bandage is used for just that—a fingertip. It is made to wrap around the finger.
The knuckle bandage wraps around the knuckle.
The butterly closure is used to pull both sides of a cut back together to promote healing and help prevent infection.
The donut bandage is used to put pressure around an impaled object without putting pressure on the object itself. Attach with roll or gauze or tape.
A pressure bandage is best described as a conforming gauze roll bandage that contains an inner absorbent layer of porous cotton to be applied to a wound site. The rolled gauze is then applied around the cotton pad to hold it in place on the wound.
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Gauze rolls come in various lengths and sizes and can be wrapped around any wound. They can also be used to hold a gauze pad in place.
Sterile gauze pads can be used for various sizes of wounds. They usually come in sizes from 2 x 2 inches, 3 x 3 inches, 4 x 4 inches, and 5 x 9 (shown) or larger.
The triangular bandage takes up little space in a first aid kit—the bandage is only about three inches square while in its packaging—but it unwraps to a large flexible triangular sheet that can be used to sling an arm, wrap around a wrist injury, or wrap around an injured head. It is a very versatile bandage and a valuable addition to any first aid kit.
Sterile burn sheets are non-woven and made of laminated tissue fibers that provide a sterile environment. They prevent infection without sticking to the burned area. Their construction resists tearing and conforms to the person's contours. The burn sheet may be used as a wet or dry dressing.
We all know that wounds or cut on our heads obviously would create severe bleeding. This is because our scalp contains a lot of small vessels supplying our head with blood. One of the problems encountered when the scalp is wounded is of course bleeding and it is quite difficult to place the dressing and keep it still considering that plaster or tapes will easily slip or detached.
The best way to hold the dressing is to apply a head or scalp bandage. A triangular bandage would be the most appropriate to use in this situation considering that it can easily be secured during emergencies.
This hub will guide you step by step on the application of a Head or Scalp Bandage.
STEP BY STEP GUIDE
The first step of course is to secure a triangular bandage. If you are not familiar of a triangular bandage, simply click here
Now that you are familiar, grab the triangular bandage and fold the base of the bandage at least one and a half inch (1 1/2) inch twice (figure 1.). Place the folded base on the tip of the eyebrow making sure that the folded base is place outside.
After placing the folded based of the bandage on the tip of the eyebrow, insure that the apex is directly on the opposite side. Basically the apex would be at the back of the head.
Grab the points of the bandage towards the back insuring that the ears are slightly covered. This will create and inclination of the bandage on the side to prevent it from slipping later on (figure 2).
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Once the points are on the back, simply make an overhand. Insuring that the overhand will cover the apex. Remember the basic rule in bandaging, " not to tight not to loose. So insure that your overhand is good enough (figure 3)
After making the overhand, bring the points at the front and bring it just on top of the folded base. Make a square knot (figure 4)
You are almost done. From there, just insert the apex at the back on the overhand (figure 5), and insert the square knot on the folded base (figure 6)
This will create a tightening of your bandage and will in effect keep the unecessary excess. This will also create a housekeeping effect. Most importantly do not forget that the bandage is used to hold the dressing in place. Therefore it is understood that a dressing is in place prior to applying the bandage.
JPSO138 (author) from Cebu, Philippines, International on November 18, 2013:
Hi Rtalloni, thanks for finding this valuable and thanks for dropping by.
RTalloni on November 18, 2013:
This information would be valuable in a time of need. Thanks for highlighting it here for us.
JPSO138 (author) from Cebu, Philippines, International on November 12, 2013:
Thanks for the comment flourish. I hope no one will be injured. But just in case, at least we can do something about it.
FlourishAnyway from USA on November 11, 2013:
Owww, oww, oww . just the thought of having a head wound makes me woozy, but thanks to you if I am in a situation where someone needs help, I can do this. Thanks for the easy to understand step-by-steps.
Finding the right waterproof bandage to keep out water and germs is not an easy task. There are plenty of waterproof bandages available on the market — unlike waterproof contact lenses.
However, finding one that really works requires time and many trial and error attempts.
The whole process of finding a waterproof bandage that is actually waterproof may drive many people crazy. There are many products claiming they shield out water and germs but very few actually deliver what they promise.
Are waterproof bandages actually waterproof?
Waterproof bandages labelled as such are effective at keeping your skin dry when properly applied. They provide a seal around the pad that won’t soak water from the outside protecting the wound area.
After being continuously exposed to water for more than one hour, waterproof bandages will eventually lose their waterproofing ability. When that happens, you need to remove the old bandage and apply a new one.
Waterproof bandages stay on longer than regular band aid. They allow you to take care of your daily tasks without worrying too much about your bandages falling off. You can apply the first waterproof band aid in the morning and the second one in the evening. Of course, if the bandage loses its waterproofing capabilities, you need to remove it as soon as possible.
Always consult your doctor before applying waterproof bandages on large wounds.
How to apply waterproof bandages
- First, clean the affected area with rubbing alcohol to remove skin oil.
- Let it dry but don’t use any pieces of cloth to speed up the process. Some cloth fibers may remain on your skin. This may prevent the bandages from securely sticking to your skin.
- Apply the bandage from one end to another carefully pressing it on the skin.
- Gently press the whole surface of the bandage to make sure it stuck properly. But don’t press to hard to avoid making the wound worse.
Replace your bandages if they get wet
In order to avoid any issues, you should replace your bandages as soon as they get wet. Then carefully wash your wounds with soap and water, let your skin dry and apply a new bandage.
Now that you know not all waterproof bandages are actually water resistant, let’s see what are the best products available on the market. The following list is based on my personal experience and that of my fellow outdoor friends.
What waterproof bandages should I use?
1. Nexcare waterproof clear bandages
You can use these bandages for swimming, gardening or water sports. They stick really well so you don’t have to worry about your bandage budging or falling off when washing your hands.
You won’t get any rash or itches thanks to the breathable material they are made of.
- Minor scrapes
- Finger cuts
- Sore hangnails
2. Dr. Frederick’s Blister Bandages
If we’re talking blisters, Dr. Frederick’s Blister Bandages are the perfect choice for you. They protect and treat the affected area but you can also use them to actually prevent blisters.
Keep in mind these are band aids for blisters, not scrapes or cuts.
FAQ: Learn more about waterproof bandages
Can you swim with a waterproof bandage?
Having a band aid on your skin does not prevent you from swimming as long the bandage is waterproof. Make sure the band aid and the wound dressing is secured. Water and body movements may cause the bandage to slip off.
How do you remove a waterproof bandage painlessly?
Waterproof bandages often feel like they’ve literally glued to your skin. Removing them may sometimes become quite tricky.
In order to remove waterproof bandages without causing too much pain, take a cotton ball and soak it in coconut oil. Then place it on the bandage and gently press it down for a few minutes. The band aid should come off easily now.
Another solution is to use a hair dryer to blow dry the bandage on high heat.
If you go with the two waterproof band aid brands recommended above, you don’t need to worry about any weird grimacing when removing them. For example, Nexcare bandages are designed for easy removal. Gently stretch them away from your wound and that’s it.
I hope this guide helped you to decide what waterproof bandages to buy next time you need one.
If you’ve got additional tips on waterproof band aids, feel free to use the comment section below.
Last updated in October 2021 to add additional information.
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Hopefully you won’t need this information, but if you should, here’s some tips on how to bandage your dog correctly. When your dog gets an injury, giving him a safe, clean and properly applied bandage can help him recover quickly. It also helps prevent possible infection or other complications which can often lead to expensive surgeries and medications. A bandage stops bleeding and reduces your dog’s pain and suffering. It can also keep away germs and bacteria from entering your dog’s wound or cut.
There should always be a first aid kit available, whether you are at home or spending time with your buddy outside in a trip or vacation. The most important (and must-haves) for your doggy first aid kit are: antiseptic, sterile pads, adhesive bandages or tape, rolls of cotton and gauze, and household sticky tape. Aside from that, one should also be ready to replace any materials that have run out, or create makeshift bandages for emergency purposes. Of course if you have one, a well-stocked “human” first aid kit will usually suffice for Fido, too, so a separate “doggy” kit probably won’t be necessary.
How To Bandage Your Dog Correctly
In order to make a good bandage for your dog, follow these easy steps:
- First, you have to clean and disinfect the wound of your dog.
- Next, put an absorbent pad on the wound. The pad should be sterilized and nonstick.
- Over the pad, wrap a gauze bandage with one-third of the bandage being exposed on each wrap. Also, wrap some of your dog’s fur on both sides of the pad.
- Next, wrap a layer of adhesive tape / bandage over the gauge bandage.
- Test the right pressure by placing two fingers under the bandaging, and then remove them. Keep wrapping the adhesive material over the sides of the gauze that is underlying.
- Keep the pressure balanced by placing and removing your fingers from time to time as you cover the gauze bandaging with adhesive tape.
- Use a strip of sticky tape to connect the fur and the bandage. This will help in keeping the bandage secured from slipping.
Dogs can experience different kinds of injuries, and at times, the above steps aren’t enough. Here are additional things that you need to do for extra care depending on the kind of injury:
- For leg wounds, wrap roll cotton over the gauze pad, then wrap stretch gauze, and finish with adhesive tape or bandage.
- For tail wounds, do the above mentioned steps, but use long materials and secure the bandage on your dog’s tail in case it might fall off from wagging.
- For torso wounds, wrap a towel around the torso, or a pillow case. Use pins on the side (opposite of the wound) to secure the bandage.
Alternative materials you can use, in case you do not have the above materials, are clean sheets, towel strips, and even old clean clothing cut to fit your dog’s size. Household paper products can be used for substitute pads, and they can have ointment applied to them before placing them on the wound.
In addition, keep your dog’s bandage secured at all times, and make sure the bandage is just right – not too loose or too tight for your buddy. Keep them clean as well, and if they get dirty, change them immediately.
Be sure to comfort and praise the dog liberally during the bandaging process, so he doesn’t come to see it as an ordeal to be dreaded.
One word of caution, as explained in an article on the PetPlace.com website:
Bandages and splints do not help fractures of the humerus (upper arm bone) or femur (thigh bone). They can even cause more damage. If you suspect that your pet has a fractured upper thigh bone or upper arm bone, do not use a bandage or splint. Try to keep your pet as quiet and confined as possible and contact your veterinarian.
Personally, if I suspect my dog has a broken bone anywhere, not just in the locations explained above, I let my vet handle it. Then I can take care of proper bandaging, knowing the dog will heal properly.
If the occasion arises, remember the above tips for how to bandage your dog correctly.
When you have hurt your hand, you can use a roller bandage to hold a dressing in place, or to support a sprained wrist. Find out what to do.
Also in this section
- Wrap bandage around wrist, across back of hand and around fingers in a figure of 8.
- Secure end around wrist.
- Check circulation.
What to do
Start by putting the end of the bandage on the inside of their wrist, below the bottom of their thumb. Wrap the bandage around their wrist, twice.
Then wrap the bandage from the inside of their wrist, diagonally across the back of their hand up to the nail of their little finger. Then pass the bandage straight across the front of their fingers.
Pass the bandage diagonally across the back of their hand to the outside of their wrist. Then wrap under their wrist.
Repeat this figure of eight until only the finger tips are still peeking out. When wrapping, only cover two thirds of the previous layer, so that with each new layer you’re covering a third of new skin.
When you’ve covered the hand, wrap the bandage around the wrist twice and fasten the end using a safety pin, sticky tape or by tucking it in.
Once you have finished check their circulation. You can do this by pressing a finger nail on the hand for five seconds until it goes pale. If the colour doesn’t come back within two seconds, the bandage is too tight so you’ll need to loosen it and do it again. Keep checking their circulation every 10 minutes.
I recently spoke with a reader of this blog whose father worked as a salesman for Johnson & Johnson in the early 1920s. He told me that his father was one of the first people to demonstrate a new invention to doctors…the BAND-AID® Brand Adhesive Bandage.
First BAND-AID® Brand Adhesive Bandage Package, 1921
Today we take BAND-AID® Brand Adhesive Bandages for granted, but before the invention of the product in 1920 by Earle Dickson, a young Company employee, there were no ready made adhesive bandages. People needing a small bandage had to make one themselves, and they were often too cumbersome to be easily applied by one person. Most people just used what they had in the house, which many times meant tying a piece of rag around the cut. Earle took two Johnson & Johnson products – adhesive tape and gauze – and combined them to make the first adhesive bandage to help his wife Josephine, who was constantly cutting or burning her fingers in the kitchen. Earle showed the folks at work what he invented. They loved it, and a new product was born.
Earle Dickson, Inventor of the BAND-AID® Brand Adhesive Bandage, in later years. Earle became a member of the Board of Directors and a Vice President.
The first BAND-AID® Brand Adhesive Bandages were just as Earle had invented them – a long strip of adhesive tape 18 inches long and 2 ½ inches wide, with an inch-wide strip of gauze down the middle, covered in crinoline fabric to protect it and keep it clean. BAND-AID® Brand Adhesive Bandages were not made by machine and pre-cut until 1924. You would just cut off the width you needed, depending on the size of the cut or scrape you wanted to cover, peel off the fabric backing, and stick it on.
Naturally, this needed demonstrating, which is where the salesmen (or travelers, as they were called in those days) came in. They showed the newfangled adhesive bandages to doctors, butchers (who apparently cut themselves a lot) and retail pharmacists. A Johnson & Johnson traveler would come in with his BAND-AID® Brand Adhesive Bandages and a pair of scissors, and demonstrate how the product should be used.
A Company Salesman, or Traveler, circa 1921
What did they say? It probably sounded a lot like a 1921 article in THE RED CROSS MESSENGER about the new product:
“Suppose you have a cut on your finger. Cut a piece of Band-Aid from the strip, pull off the face-cloth and put the bandage over the wound. That’s all there is to it. The bandage will stay right where you place it without tying. Can you imagine anything handier for the household or shop?” [THE RED CROSS MESSENGER, Vo. XIII, No. 6, 1921, p. 378]
The article, written to educate the retail druggists who sold the Company’s products, went on to state that the useful new product could be “applied instantly to the numerous cuts received by children at play and to the ordinary injuries incident to household or any mechanical work,” as well as holding other dressings in place, applying lotions, protecting blisters and more. Although the BAND-AID® Brand Adhesive Bandage had a slow start, it caught on and became one of the Company’s best-known products, due in part to the persistence of salesmen like the reader’s father. By the way, this site has some great pictures of classic BAND-AID® Brand Adhesive Bandage tins through the years, including some very old ones.
No first aid course is ever complete without a topic or two on bandaging techniques. You simply need to know what it takes to dress a wound in an emergency situation and how to go about it. It is not matter of applying pressure to stop bleeding as most people think. What you do while bandaging a wound can either save a life or reduce the chances of one surviving by a significant margin. To that extent, one has to choice but to always use the right bandaging technique in a given situation. Read on to learn more about the most common bandaging techniques.
Considered by paramedics as the most popular bandaging technique, the Spiral Turn always comes in handy in different scenarios. It is usually used on wrists, upper arm and around the thigh. To use the technique, create two complete cyclical turns around the body part that needs to be supported. Then wrap the bandage over itself. Leave a 30 degree angle between a new wrap and the previous one. To complete the bandaging, tuck the end of the bandage into a fold and fasten it with a metal clip or a safety pin.
Figure eight wrap
It is also one of the most common bandaging techniques in the medical field after the aforementioned spiral turn. You will learn about it not just as a form of wound dressing but also as a first aid measure. First aid training in Winnipeg never fails to cover the technique. It is used on joints like knees and elbows. Start by making two complete cyclical turns. Then wrap the bandage once around the back of the injured joint. Wrap it once again so as to form the number eight on the joint. Go on wrapping the bandage until you cover at least two thirds of the previous layer. Be sure to encircle the end on top of the joint and secure the end with a safety pin.
Spiral reverse turn
Unlike the figure eight wrap, spiral reverse is complicated. It is used to bandage areas on the lower forearm and around the calves. To execute the technique, wrap the bandage on the affected area twice. Move the bandage to a 30 or 35 degree angle, place the thump of your free hand on the wraps upper edge and turn the bandage over to make the top side bottom. Go on with the pattern and wrap the injured limb until your folds are aligned. Use fastening, safety pins or clinic tapes to connect the end of the bandage.
It is perhaps one of the simplest bandaging techniques you will learn in your first aid class. It is a simple wrap around a wound. Apply the end of the bandage to the injured area and wrap the wound. Make sure each turn covers the previous one. Use metal fastening, a safety pin or a clinic tape to secure your wrap. The technique is always used to cover wounds so as to prevent infection. You can also use the technique to prevent or stop minor bleeding.
There are, of course, other techniques that can come in handy in an emergency situation. It all depends on the type of wound you want to dress as well as the nature of the emergency. Note that you will not learn all these techniques in a day and master each. Apart from the circular turn technique, all the other ones are in one way or another complex. Your best bet is to be attentive in class and practice as often as you can until you master each technique.
The book is sold at Agnes’ secret shop for 4,700 gold. It cannot be traded or mailed.
- AP: 2
- Stat Improvement: Maximum HP +3, Dex +1
- Effects: Target’s wounds are healed by 10-14%
To obtain the book “First Aid Using Splints”, complete Fleta’s quest, “Rab’s Dog Collar” to receive “Manus’ Special Shop Ticket.” The ticket may only be used once, and allows purchase of the book from Manus for 8000 gold. It cannot be traded or mailed.
- AP: 3
- Stat Improvement: Maximum HP +3, Dex +1
- Effects: Target’s wounds are healed by 10-16%
Ask Heulfryn with the Skills Keyword with First Aid rank D
- Delivering 20 Wools to Heulfryn
- 100 Experience Points
- Complete training for Rank D of First Aid
- AP: 4
- Stat Improvement: Maximum HP +4, Dex +2
- Effects: Target’s wounds are healed by 10-18%
Talk to Heulfryn with the Skills Keyword with First Aid rank C.
- Deliver 1 Pot-Belly Spider’s Fang to Heulfryn
- 100 Experience Points
- Completed training for Rank C of First Aid
- The fang can be obtained from Pot Belly Spiders with the Dubious title in Karu Forest Ruins.
- AP: 5
- Stat Improvement: Maximum HP +4, Dex +2
- Effects: Target’s wounds are healed by 10-20%
Talk to Heulfryn with the Skills Keyword with First Aid rank B.
- Perform First Aid 10 times
- Talk to Heulfryn
- 100 Experience Points
- Completed First Aid Rank B
- You are not required to cure any wounds; simply using the skill will suffice.
Using the skill on pets will count towards fulfilling the requirement.
- AP: 7
- Stat Improvement: Maximum HP +4, Dex +2
- Effects: Target’s wounds are healed by 15-20%
Talk to Heulfryn about [Skills]. You will receive a quest.
Make your way to one of the Sulfur Pits, mine 30 sulfur ores, and deliver them to Heulfryn.
Talk to Heulfryn with the Skills Keyword with First Aid rank A.
- Deliver 30 Sulfur Ores to Heulfryn
- Completed First Aid rank A Training
- The Sulfur Ores may be gathered before accepting the quest
- You will need 24 inventory spaces, as Sulfur Ore is bulky
- AP: 10
- Stat Improvement: Maximum HP +4, Dex +2
- Effects: Target’s wounds are healed by 15-22%
Talk to Heulfryn in Qilla Base Camp with the [Skills] keyword at First Aid rank 9
- Deliver 10 Capybara Furs to Heulfryn
- Deliver 10 Volcano Lizard Scales to Heulfryn
- Deliver 10 Wyvern Claws to Heulfryn
- Deliver fever medicine to Ethna
- Talk to Heulfryn
- Completed training for Rank 9 of First Aid
- Do not kill the mobs with Bare Hands. You do not get any drops whatsoever.
- AP: 11
- Stat Improvement: Maximum HP +5, Dex +3
- Effects: Target’s wounds are healed by 15-24%
- AP: 12
- Stat Improvement: Maximum HP +14, Dex +3
- Effects: Target’s wounds are healed by 15-26%
- AP: 13
- Stat Improvement: Life +16, Dex +3
- Effects: Heals target’s wounds by 15-28%
Talk to Dilys in Tir Chonaill with the [Skills] keyword at First Aid rank 6
- Deliver 20 Fine Handmade Bandages to Dilys
- Deliver 40 Fine Fabrics to Dilys
- Deliver 1 Blue Rose Bouquet to Dilys
- Deliver 5 Green Plum Tea to Dilys
- 15000 Experience Points
- Completed training for Rank 6 of First Aid
- AP: 15
- Stat Improvement: Life +20
- Effects: Heal 20-28% of target’s wounds; Allows you to apply a bandage a bit faster.
- AP: 17
- Stat Improvement: Life +23
- Effects: Heal 20-30% of target’s wounds; Allows you to apply a bandage a bit faster.
- AP: 19
- Stat Improvement: Life +26
- Effects: Heal 20-32% of target’s wounds; Allows you to apply a bandage a bit faster.
- AP: 22
- Stat Improvement: Life +29
- Effects: Heal 20-34% of target’s wounds; Allows you to apply a bandage a bit faster.
Talk to Eavan in Dunbarton or Aodhan in Emain Macha with the [Skills] keyword at First Aid rank 2, after having cleared G3.
I believe the most effective strategy for healing is to deploy healers well in advance.
One can never know when such a forethought might save a life. – Aodhan
Do you know how to apply a pressure dressing? Do you even need to know anything about it? Maybe you think you should do your work and let medical professionals deal with potential injuries. Ultimately, it’s anybody’s choice. But, there are many reasons why you should know a thing or two about providing first aid and taking care of injuries.
Injuries can happen to anyone, anywhere. Okay, we have emergency services and paramedics, people who are trained to respond and react quickly. But, should we really rely solely on them? It’s a question that resonates through almost every field of life. Repairing a car or home appliances, painting walls, fixing a leaky faucet – most people used to do it on their own just a couple of decades ago. Today, we seek professional help for the smallest hindrances and malfunctions.
This is not necessarily a bad thing. It shows progress. Without any doubt, modern technologies make our lives easier. But, as a side-effect, we are becoming more and more dependent. Consequently, we are more vulnerable and powerless when things go wrong.
Our society shows many signs of potential disturbance, and if SHTF you’ll be completely paralyzed unless you take your destiny into your own hands.
Even if nothing changes, there are so many situations where you may not have the luxury to wait for paramedics to save the day. Think of car accidents, hiking, hunting, and camping trips. Not to mention homesteading and living off the grid .
A more independent and self-sufficient lifestyle requires many skills. Providing first aid is among them and it should never be underestimated.
What Is Pressure Dressing?
A pressure dressing (also called a pressure bandage) is a bandage designed to exert pressure over a wound or other area. Typically, it has no adhesive and you should apply it over a thick absorbent layer, usually some kind of gauze.
It provides continuous pressure and prevents seroma and hematoma formation. These are medical terms that denote different kinds of fluids that may accumulate in a tissue underneath the skin. It also compresses dead space and as a result, decreases infection risks.
Applying pressure is the first line of defense in cases of bleeding. You can use combat gauze, cloths, even your hands to apply pressure immediately and prevent blood loss.
However, maintaining the pressure manually can be difficult. That’s where the pressure dressing comes in. After you apply a sterile gauze or another absorbent, you should wrap the pressure dressing over the gauze. It will maintain constant pressure and hopefully stop the bleeding .
When You Should Apply Pressure Dressing
Applying a pressure bandage is simple. But, you also need to know when you should apply it. At the end of the day, a person’s skills matter more than gear. So, it’s a good idea to take some emergency and first aid training.
The course of action depends on the wound type. There are many types of wounds and a couple of classifications. Nevertheless, the use of pressure dressing depends mostly on bleeding severity. So, we’ll classify all wounds into three categories: minor bleeding, medium to heavy bleeding, and severe bleeding.
For minor cuts and scrapes, bleeding may stop by itself. A couple of minutes of applied pressure will most certainly stop these minor bleedings. You don’t need a pressure dressing for these wounds. Any kind of bandage will do the trick.
Pressure dressing is typically used for medium to heavy bleeding wounds. In this case, it may take 10 to 15 minutes of constant pressure to stop the bleeding. The pressure bandage should stay on until medical professionals are available. If it’s oversaturated with blood, don’t remove it but add the second dressing. If the wound still bleeds, you’re dealing with severe bleeding.
Besides accidents and post-surgery procedures, pressure dressings are useful to treat snake bites. You will need two pressure bandages for this. The first dressing goes directly on the bite. The second one is used to immobilize the entire limb. This technique slows the lymphatic flow and slows the venom down.
And don’t suck the venom out of the byte! It’s a myth and it doesn’t work!
When pressure and pressure bandage don’t work, it’s time for the last resort – a tourniquet. It’s a mighty device to stop the bleeding but it comes with some risks, too. If you want to know how to use a tourniquet you can read our articles on CAT and RATS tourniquets.
How to Use a Pressure Bandage
The application of a pressure dressing is pretty simple as I have already said. Still, if you’re dealing with heavy bleeding, you need to be careful. You should have a pair of sterile gloves and a sterile gauze.
- Place gauze or absorbing pad directly on the wound.
- Use your digit(s) to apply and maintain pressure and wrap the bandage over the gauze. You should wrap it firmly but not too tight. The idea is to stop the bleeding and not the blood flow through the limb.
- You can readjust pressure dressings if it’s too tight or too loose.
- Make sure to maintain the pressure using your hand. Removing the whole dressing and gauze too early can remove the clot as well and reactivate the bleeding.
Pressure Bandage with Hemostatic Agent
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Some pressure dressings come with agents that promote blood clotting. There are different kinds of hemostatic agents and they can also be applied separately.
However, it’s easier to use a ready-made hemostatic dressing. It speeds up the process, but the procedure remains the same. It’s not a magic powder that miraculously stops the bleeding. Some of these agents have a bad rep as they used to release a lot of heat in the process. Modern products, however, are safe and effective and won’t cause burns or anything like it.
A pressure dressing is such a simple item, yet it can make a world of difference. Pressure bandages of today are designed to be effective and easy to apply. But, you can also improvise if you don’t have your IFAK at hand.
Whether you have to deal with an injury or a snake bite, it’s imperative to react quickly and limit the damage. The pressure dressing is a necessary piece of an emergency kit. Nevertheless, even the best possible equipment won’t save you unless you know how and when to use it. Hopefully, you’ll never have to use it. But if the time comes, you should be ready.
Subsequently, one may also ask, how important is bandaging in first aid?
It is important to do the proper bandaging technique when using and administering first aid on a wound or injury. The main goal of placing a bandage on an injury is for immobilization, protection, support or compression. If the bandaging technique is not done properly, it could exacerbate the damage.
Also, what is the purpose of a bandage? A bandage is a piece of material used either to support a medical device such as a dressing or splint, or on its own to provide support to or to restrict the movement of a part of the body. When used with a dressing, the dressing is applied directly on a wound, and a bandage used to hold the dressing in place.
Subsequently, one may also ask, what are the types of bandaging?
The four main types of bandages are gauze, compression, triangular and tube. The bandages made from cloth or from paper, these are exceptionally versatile. All Safety Products sells several types of bandages such as medical gauze, shoe covers, bandages, and other types of disposable medical supplies online.
Can I use a pad as a bandage?
Often, so called “subject matter experts” will give the advice, that to treat massive hemorrhage, tampons, sanitary pads and even diapers are acceptable and effective ‘bandages‘. The qualification they give is that they are designed to ‘soak up blood’.
In times of catastrophes, especially in a post-collapse scenario, professional medical care is not readily accessible. Do you even know how to bandage a cut finger? Things as basic as this question may save your life in the long run. Even without the thought of a post-apocalyptic scenario, it is advisable and practical to know about the treatment of basic injuries.
Your hands are the primary versatile tools you use at all times. They handle nearly every single task that you have to do every day. Thus, in the most challenging times, your hands are your only companion. Cuts are bound to happen. Do you know how to bandage a cut finger? If not, read on.
How to Bandage a Cut Finger
There are specific questions you need to ask yourself before applying the bandage: Should I leave the wound covered or uncovered? Do fresh wounds need air? First off, covered wounds heal faster than ones exposed to air. Covered injuries pave the way to faster tissue growth due to less exposure from moisture.
Also, covering your wounds reduce contamination. This way, you can expedite the healing of your injuries by not adding more problems to the fresh cut. On the flip side of the coin, airing out a wound can be effective, too, if it gets too wet. Once you change the dressing and notice that it absorbed some rain or shower water, let the wound air dry a little. Then, you can apply a new bandage to the same.
How Tight Should the Bandage Be?
Your body wants to heal, and the ultimate goal is to let that happen. After the injury, in its first few minutes, your body attempts to reduce the bleeding through clotting. This is, in a way, similar to plugging holes, but only through the convergence of fibrous cells and platelets.
After a few hours, your body starts sending in constructive elements to lay down the framework for new tissues. Defensive cells are also sent to fight off infections. All of these processes stop or slow down when you wrap the bandage or dressing very tightly. Thus, do not impede the construction of new tissues by doing so.
Types of Dressings
Band-aids are always the perfect cover-up for small wounds. Specific bandages work their way around toes, fingers, and knuckles. Before treating your injury, it is a must that you consider the location and size of your wound. Here are some of the types of dressings that will help you in learning how to bandage a cut finger.
Non-adherent Pads (Telfa)
Non-adherent pads are made for wounds that have light drainage. They are also suitable for most injuries since they have a cotton core in a non-stick coating. This is to let the wound breathe and so that the cotton can absorb the fluid well. They are flexible for cutting to fit in awkward areas.
Wet dressings conform to contours and always keep the wound moist. Moreover, these do not stick to injuries due to the petroleum-jelly like substance on it. You can make your own by spreading petroleum jelly on a gauze pad.
These are customized for dry or dehydrated abrasions and wounds. Its purpose is to transfer such moisture to the latter. You cannot use this dressing for moist wounds or those that are showing signs of fluid discharge.
Hydrocolloid dressings are longer lasting than the other kinds. They are also very flexible since you can just easily mold them even around body parts that involve lots of motion. They act as barriers against bacteria and contamination. You can barely see the wound, though, so checking it might be a challenge.
These dressings are typically used in hospitals to secure IVs. They are not that great in absorbing wound discharge, but they are perfect for IV purposes. You do not want to use this for an open wound, particularly on one that is moist.
This is a popular staple and an economical option for the masses. It is easy to find, cheap, with a simple application. However, since it is 100% made of cotton, it will undoubtedly stick to the wound if used dry.
What if My Dressing is Soaked With Pus, Blood, or Other Kinds of Fluid?
You can easily spot a saturated dressing. For sure, if your wound was moist, to begin with, you will also expect a little spotting. However, anything more is a sign that you should troubleshoot or replace the dressing altogether.
Dressings cannot absorb lots of blood, so the blood must be taken care of before you even apply the bandage. Adding clean dressing on top of a soaked dressing is a disproven teaching. You should always change your bandage when it is soaked with blood or when you deem necessary.
If you see pus on the bandage, especially if the discharge looks somewhat colorful, then you also need to re-apply new dressing. However, after you remove the soaked gauze and before applying a new one, clean the wound first. This is so that the injury will not get infected further due to the trapped pus therein.
It is good to know how to bandage a cut finger, especially during catastrophic events, when there are no clinics or medical practitioners around. Also, it is easy to dress your wound once you know the types of dressings and when to replace them. It is not rocket science. Keep in mind that the type of bandage you should use depends on the size and moisture of the wound you acquired. For further knowledge on the matter, it is recommended that you watch self-help videos and other first-aid materials online. Know more about first aid.
Former Nurse Advisor, Community Eye Health Journal, International Centre for Eye Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK.
Before performing any eye procedure:
Wash your hands (and afterwards too).
Position the patient comfortably with head supported.
Avoid distraction for yourself and the patient.
Ensure good lighting.
Always explain to the patient what you are going to do.
Reasons for applying an eye pad
to ‘rest’ the eye
e.g., hyphaema, vitreous haemorrhage.
to aid healing following trauma
e.g., corneal abrasion.
to protect the eye
e.g., following surgery and procedures requiring corneal anaesthesia.
You will need
It is important to remind the patient not to open the affected eye under the pad. If the eyelids do not close naturally over the cornea it will be necessary, before padding, to tape the eyelids closed.
Apply a piece of adhesive tape, about 15 centimetres long, to the eye pad (Figure (Figure1 1 ).
Ask the patient to close both eyes.
Position the eye pad diagonally over the closed lids of the affected eye and tape firmly, but gently, to the forehead and cheek.
Apply a second and third piece of tape to ensure the pad lies flat.
Extra protection can be given by taping a shield over the pad in the same way. The shield shown (Figure (Figure2) 2 ) is produced commercially and is called a Cartella shield. You can also make your own (see box).
Reasons for applying an eye bandage
To maintain gentle pressure over an eye pad:
to arrest haemorrhage
to reduce swelling after eyelid surgery
following eye surgery, e.g., enucleation
for a child, to ensure the pad is not disturbed.
You will need
bandage – 5 centimetres wide
small safety pin
Apply an eye pad as described above.
Hold the rolled bandage in one hand with the opened end, held by the other hand, on the forehead above the affected eye (Figure (Figure3 3 ).
Take the bandage, directed away from the affected eye, twice around the head firmly, but not tightly.
On the second circuit, bring the bandage below the ear and up over the eye and around the head again.
The bandage can partially obscure the other eye. To avoid this happening, place the index finger above the eyebrow and hold up the edge of the bandage (Figure (Figure4 4 ).
Continue the two circuits described above until the bandaging is complete.
Secure with adhesive tape and/or small safety pin (but do not use a pin in the case of a child).
Making an eye pad and eye shield
You will need
two pieces of gauze
thin cardboard or old X-ray film
circular object – about 8 centimetres in diameter
How to make an eye pad
Place cotton wool between the two pieces of gauze.
Cut into an oval shape approximately 5 centimetres wide and 6 centimetres long (Figure (Figure5 5 ).
How to make an eye shield
Draw a circle on the cardboard or film and cut around it.
Make a single cut into the centre (just half the diameter).
Turn into a cone (Figure (Figure6) 6 ) and secure the shape with adhesive tape.
It is impossible to carry every kind of bandage you could possibly need in your pack if you are on a hike. That means you may have to improvise and use what is to hand if you find yourself out in the wilderness with a wound to dress.
With any open wound, the first priority is to stop the bleeding and protect it from infection. If you ever find yourself out without any kind of bandage, there are alternatives you can use that you may not immediately think of.
Other wounds, such as sprains or breaks can also benefit from being bandaged, and there are many ways to make these quickly and easily without having to carry around a full first-aid kit. Here is a quick guide to creating a bandage from what you have to hand in your back-pack.
Making an emergency bandage
If you have no fabric, paper towels make an excellent alternative to bandages. You will need something clean to place directly onto the wound, but after that, you can use this paper and tape method to secure the protective covering in place.
- If possible, use some gauze to act as a dressing for the wound. If you don’t have any gauze, use a paper towel instead. Unlike tissue, this will not stick to the wound. Another alternative is piece of clean fabric
- Find some kind of sticky tape. Any type will work as you only need to use it to hold the dressing in place.
- To dress the wound, cut or tear the gauze or paper towel into the best shape and size for the wound. It will need to cover the whole of the wound and have some material left over around the edges. Before applying the dressing, make sure you clean the wound with an antiseptic wipe or fluid or simply with clean water. Place the dressing over the wound.
- Stick the tape firmly over the dressing to hold it in place. If the wound is bleeding, you may need to apply some pressure to it to slow down and stop the loss of blood.
- Apply tape to a dry and clean surface. Make sure that the skin is clean before the application.
- If you want the tape to perform better, use a skin prep wipe before direct application.
- Do not stretch the tape. Medical tapes are not designed to withstand tension. If you apply tension to some medical tapes, it could cause damage to your skin.
- Use an adequate amount of tape around the affected area. This should extend about a half-inch beyond the dressing.
Other types of bandages
TRIANGULAR BANDAGE OR SLING
Triangular bandages need to be clean, but not necessarily sterile, as they won’t come into close contact with open wounds. A triangular bandage can be used as a sling or as a tourniquet along with a piece of cane, the shaft of a screwdriver or another tool that you may have available. This makes them versatile and useful.
To make a triangular bandage, all you need is some kind of strong material, preferably cotton. Simply cut a triangle with a base of around 55 inches and sides of around 40 inches out of the cloth. You have your multi-functional triangular bandage.
Elasticated bandages are useful for holding splints in place and supporting sprained ankles. The easiest way to make them is to cut the cloth to width you need from the legs of some old stretch jeans. You can use a sewing kit to make the tubes of cloth the right, and fairly tight fit around an arm or a leg.
While the above hacks will help you in the case of an emergency – there is no great adventure companion than a pair of Ridgemont Outfitters hiking boots. Shop the range here:
Medical tapes come in handy in many kinds of situations, and their various types are designed for different applications. This is why it is imperative to know how to use medical tape. Sure, you may own a first aid kit with all its necessary components. However, that is not enough assurance that you can use them the right way. Using these medical items can be tricky, and knowing how to use them is not that difficult.
In building a survival kit, medical tapes should always be included along with your other necessities. In the same light, you need to know how to use medical tape. You also need to have adequate knowledge about the items in your survival kit. Let’s start with medical tapes. With no further ado, here are some things that you need to know about medical tapes.
Types of Medical Tapes
The manner of applying medical tape is reliant on its variation. These medical tapes vary when it comes to the materials, use, and other features. To acquaint yourself with the uses of medical tape, here are some of its variations.
Paper Medical Tape
This type of medical tape is lightweight and breathable. Rest assured, it offers secure adhesion, is gentle on the skin, and works on top of regularly changed bandages. If your skin is “At Risk,” you do not have to worry about using paper medical tape on top of it. This is one of the safest medical tapes when it comes to severe wounds.
Zinc-Oxide Medical Tape
Zinc-Oxide Medical Tape is soothing on delicate skin. It reduces the chances of tape burns or skin tears when you remove it. It is also designed for extended wear and can adhere to sweaty, wet, and oily skin. This medical tape has exceptional adhesive powers since it can be worn in the shower. Ostomy patients find this type of medical tape helpful since it is flexible enough to work with various skin conditions.
Silk Surgical Medical Tape
A surgical silk medical tape is conformable, soft, and perfect for almost all kinds of medical applications. It is easy to tear and may be used in home and surgical settings. Most people also go for this type of medical tape since it is hypoallergenic and permeable. If you have rampant skin allergies or sensitive skin, this is the perfect medical tape for you.
Plastic Medical Tape
This medical tape is breathable and transparent. Most of the products of this type are easy to tear, offer strong adhesion and usable with exam gloves. It is also ideal to use for medical devices and securing dressings.
Cloth Medical Tape
Cloth Medical Tapes are conformable, soft, and have high adhesive material to hold catheters, tubing, and wound dressings in place. This type of medical tape has a cloth-like nature, which makes it a flexible one for ease of movement.
How to Use Medical Tape?
Here are some tips on how to use medical tape properly:
Are Medical Tapes Skin Friendly?
If you have sensitive skin, you should go for the 3M medical tape since it is skin-friendly. It has a wide range of other medical tapes wherein you can do a skin tape after reading the product description. When you buy a medical tape, test it first on a patch of skin that is not a part of your wound care or medical device. After that, leave the tape in place, to see how your skin reacts to it before applying it to the actual area of injury. What constitutes “skin-friendly” is not the same for everyone since every person has different skin sensitivity. This is a reminder that you should always perform a skin test.
How Do I Remove Medical Tapes Painlessly?
There are various hacks and ways on how to remove medical tapes without pain. However, most people resort to adhesive removers. If you are planning to remove yours using the latter, start at the edge of the medical tape. Dab the remover along the edge until you notice that the tape begins to loosen from your skin. Repeat this step until the bandage is completely removed.
Be patient in removing the medical tape. Do not pull the bandage forcefully. Since you are using an adhesive remover, you have to be gentle. This is to avoid causing damage to your skin by letting the adhesive remover do all the work for you.
How Do I Remove the Adhesive Residue?
Once you remove the adhesive residue, wipe the adhesive remover gently back and forth. Repeat until the residue is completely removed. Once you feel that the stickiness is no longer there, wash that portion with a bar of mild soap and lukewarm water. If you are planning to add new medical tape, make sure that you wipe the area thoroughly until it is completely dry.
When a worker is injured, it’s not good enough to just open the first aid kit and try to guess at the best way to treat them. Learning how to treat these injuries ahead of time will help you respond when the time comes.
Many common workplace injuries can be treated on site using the materials in a standard first aid kit. Even more serious injuries that require qualified medical care can be less severe and less likely to be fatal if first aid is administered immediately. Knowing some first aid basics, then, is an essential part of workplace safety.
(See First Aid Kits: The Essential List to learn what to stock in yours.)
This article will go over ten common first aid incidents and provide a brief overview of how to treat them on the scene.
Sprains, Strains, and Tears
Sprains, strains, and tears are injuries to the muscles or ligaments. When a worker suffers from one of these, the first thing to do is immobilize the affected area, elevate it, and apply ice and compression to reduce swelling.
Strains accompanied by severe pain, swelling, or discoloration may require a trip to the hospital. In milder cases, rest, ice, and anti-inflammatory medication will help the area heal within a few days or week.
Soreness and Pain
If an employee complains of soreness or pain, the cause needs to be identified and removed. One common source of soreness is poor ergonomics, including bad posture or repetitive motions during the course of the day. Determining the root cause of the issue and addressing it can result in immediate improvement. If pain is severe or persists, the employee may need to visit a healthcare professional for a diagnosis.
Bruises and Contusions
Bruises and contusions usually occur as a result of impact with an object, whether it is moving or stationary. The site of the injury is often swollen and takes on a purple or blackish discoloration. If the pain is not tolerable, administer over-the-counter pain killers.
Lukewarm water in a small plastic bottle that is then rolled over the affected area can hasten the re-absorption of blood, which can improve the appearance of the bruise. This warm water therapy can be performed periodically until the pain and discoloration have gone away.
Cuts, Lacerations, and Punctures
Cuts, lacerations, and punctures can be quite serious. If bleeding is not profuse, wash the site of injury with water and soap. You can also apply antiseptic solution. Cover the wound with sterilized gauze and hold it in place with adhesive tape. If there is bleeding, apply direct pressure. Never try to remove objects or debris from a wound.
Fractures are broken bones, and they can occur as a result of falls or other impact. When this happens, the affected part should be immobilized and unnecessary manipulation of the affected area should be avoided.
Remember that a fracture could sever a blood vessel or a nerve if it is not immobilized, resulting in a much more serious injury. Immobilize the injured part, and transport the patient to the nearest hospital or medical clinic as soon as possible.
For mild to moderate burns, run cool water over the burned area for up to 15 minutes (avoid using ice). Then, cover the affected area with clean gauze to prevent infection and contact with the air, which can cause pain.
If the burn is severe (affecting more than two layers of skin) or covers a large area, the burned area can be elevated and covered with a clean, moist, sterile bandage or cloth. Never try to remove burned clothing. Call emergency personnel to the scene immediately.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) occurs when the median nerve, which runs from the forearm to the palm of the hand, becomes pressed or squeezed at the wrist. It is usually caused by an injury to the wrist that causes swelling, such as sprain or fracture.
CTS is very common among workers who frequently use vibrating hand tools and those who use a computer mouse for long periods.
If you suspect CTS, use an analgesic, muscle relaxant, or anti-inflammatory drug and instruct the injured worker to rest.
The most serious immediate concern for an amputation is bleeding. The best way to reduce bleeding is by applying pressure. If that doesn't work, a tourniquet may be used. Because this may have complications, it should be applied by someone with first aid training if possible and should only be used in situations where the bleeding cannot be stopped by more simple means.
Chemical Burns and Corrosion
When the skin is exposed to a chemical like hydrochloric or sulfuric acid, it can result in a chemical burn or corrosion.
The first step in treating a chemical burn is to remove as much chemical from the skin as possible by flushing it with water or, if it's a dry powder, brushing it off and removing affected clothing and jewelry. Apply a damp, cool compress to relieve pain and then cover the affected area with a clean sheet or cloth to avoid infection and prevent contact with the air.
In cases where the victim is showing any bodily reaction to the injury, contact emergency personnel immediately.
Bandages have three purposes: to keep wounds clear of infection, to contain bleeding, and to provide additional protection and support. Sterile gauze is preferable, but in an emergency just about anything will make a good bandage: scarves, T-shirts, socks, sheets, stockings, even a belt.
Bandaging a deep wound requires more than simply sticking a Band-Aid over the cut and hoping for the best. Deep wounds require bandages that are administered after a wound is cleaned and treated at the hospital.
Before You Put the Band-Aid On
Never wrap a bandage too tightly. You want to keep bleeding in check and protect the wound, but you don’t want to stop circulation or cause irritating chafing! If the wound is on an arm or leg, check circulation by making sure fingers or toes stay warm and pink. If they become cold or blue, it’s a sign there’s a circulation problem. Periodically check the patient’s pulse just to make sure everything’s okay.
Bandaging Head Wounds
If a wound affects the scalp, the bandage should be made by tying a kerchief on the head and knotting it in the back.
- After putting on your protective gloves, stopping any bleeding , and cleaning the wound , fold a large bandanna-sized cloth into a triangle.
- Place the bandage on the injured person’s head, with the tip at the back.
- Bring the two ends across the head, just above the ears and cross them in back.
- Bring the two ends back to the center of the forehead. Tie ends together.
- Tuck hem of bandage snugly under wrap.
If a wound only affects the forehead, put a square of sterile gauze pad over the wound. Then wrap a sterile gauze bandage around the head, “sweatband” style . Circle the head at least three times to keep the dressing underneath in place. Cut and use adhesive tape to attach the ends, or tie them with a firm knot. You can also use a large piece of cloth, wrapping it several times around the head. Tie the ends in place above the eyes in the middle of the forehead.
Ears and cheeks require a bandage that is more like an “old-fashioned toothache” style. These steps teach you how to apply such a bandage.
Do not use this bandage style if the injured person has a jaw problem or if he or she is vomiting. It can cause suffocation!
- Place the long, thick bandage under the chin.
- Pull the ends up over the ears and cheeks, covering the treated wound.
- Cross the ends on one side, just above the ear.
- Wrap the two ends in the opposite direction, making a “cross” by encircling the forehead and back of the head.
- Tie ends where the “cross” meets.
Wrapping Knee and Leg Wounds
To make a bandage that won’t come apart on the knee or leg, follow these steps:
- Clean and dress the wound while wearing protective gloves.
- Bend the knee unless it causes pain. Then place the middle of your wide, long cloth at the underside of the knee joint (and over any dressing).
- Wrap the cloth, with opposite ends crossing, over the knee and the upper or lower leg (depending on the location of the wound).
- Tie ends into a knot.
- Secure the bandage with adhesive tape or safety pins.
Follow these steps to apply a bandage to the leg using a spiral technique:
Building a first aid kit for your car emergency supplies, Go Bag or EDC? Here is what you need to know about Israeli bandages and tourniquets – including which one is better to pack if you have limited space.
The Quick Answer
Israeli bandages and tourniquets are both used for treating severe bleeding. However, they are not interchangeable.
A tourniquet is applied above arterial wounds on limbs only.
An Israeli bandage is used to apply direct pressure to non-arterial wounds or heavy bleeding in places where you can’t use a tourniquet.
Ideally, you would have both of them in your trauma kit, but there are situations where one might be better than the other.
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Israeli Bandage vs. Tourniquet
An Israeli bandage is a type of Emergency Trauma Dressing (ETD). It is designed to apply direct pressure to bleeding wounds and can be used anywhere on the body except for gaping chest wounds. Israeli bandages are made up of four parts:
- Sterile non-adhesive dressing that goes against the wound
- Stretchy outer layer which is wrapped around the body
- Pressure applicator which applies pressure against the wound
- Closure bar which allows for one-handed closing and also exerts additional pressure
Israeli bandages come in several sizes. The smallest is 4” wide and the biggest is 12” wide. There are also many other types of ETDs. The US Military CoTCCC Guidelines don’t specify a certain ETD. Other manufacturers, such as OALES and H-Dressing, can be used instead of an Israeli bandage.
A tourniquet is a band that you tighten above a limb wound to stop the flow of blood to the wound. The best tourniquets are designed so they can be applied quickly with one hand and apply a large amount of pressure without breaking. For more info, read: How and When to Use a Tourniquet.
Most people will never need to use a tourniquet. However, if you ever needed one, you would really need it. While it is possible to improvise a tourniquet out of things like a stick and bandana, they don’t work very well. Multiple studies show that improvised tourniquets have very high failure rates. For this reason, good trauma kits always include a tourniquet.
Can You Use an Israeli Bandage Instead of a Tourniquet?
No, an Israeli bandage is not a substitute for a tourniquet. Even if you used a stick as a windlass, the Israeli bandage wouldn’t exert enough pressure to stop arterial bleeding.
If you didn’t have a real tourniquet, an Israeli bandage would be better than nothing – but you’d be better off improvising a tourniquet out of a less-stretchy material such as a triangle bandage or bandana.
You also shouldn’t use an Israeli bandage as a substitute for an Ace bandage, for stabilizing impaled objects or splinting broken bones. Despite the hype, an Israeli bandage is not a multi-use item. It’s meant for one thing only: stopping bleeding.
Which to Pack: Israeli Bandage or Tourniquet?
An Israeli bandage and tourniquet have very different purposes, so you should ideally pack both of them. However, it isn’t always necessary to pack both. Here are some guidelines.
Pack Both If:
- Space and weight aren’t an issue,
- You don’t have medical training,
- You are going to high-risk situations
If any of these apply, you should really have both a tourniquet and an Israeli bandage (or other pressure bandage). Ease of use will be especially important without medical training so you can administer first aid quickly and without mistakes.
Also note that, if you ever needed a tourniquet, you would still have to bandage the wound. You could use the Israeli bandage for this.
Pack Just a Tourniquet If:
- Space or weight is limited
- You have sterile gauze and an elastic bandage
- AND you have medical training
It is possible to use sterile gauze and an elastic bandage instead of an Israeli bandage. These two items are much more versatile than just an Israeli bandage. So, you can save weight and space by bringing them and skipping the Israeli bandage. But it takes skill to make a pressure bandage this way, so this only makes sense if you’ve had medical training.
Pack Just an Israeli Bandage If:
- Space or weight is limited
- You don’t have much medical training
- AND arterial injury is highly unlikely
Outside of combat and some other high-risk situations, arterial injuries are very rare. So, to save space, you might decide to risk it and skip the tourniquet. Trauma injuries aren’t as rare though, so you wouldn’t want to skip the Israeli bandage. For those without training, it is much easier and faster to apply than gauze and an elastic bandage.
Pack neither if:
- Space or weight is limited
- And you are fine risking it.
It is up to each person to balance risk and decide which gear they want to pack. For example, I know very few people (including EMTs) who carry a tourniquet or Israeli bandage in their everyday carry kits. It’s simply not worth the hassle of lugging around those items every day when the actual risk of something happening is so low.
Of course, if something were to happen, they might regret that decision. So think carefully about how much risk you are willing to accept and adjust your supplies accordingly.
Gear is good but training is better.
You can lose consciousness in less than a minute from blood loss. So, regardless of what you pack in your first aid kit, it’s important that you know how to use it. Every second matters so practice real-life scenarios until you can apply a bandage without even thinking. Want to learn first aid? Here are some good places to start learning.
Disclaimer: All content and media on the primalsurvivor.net is created and published for informational purposes only. It is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice and should not be relied on as health or personal advice. Use of the information on this site is AT YOUR OWN RISK, intended solely for self-help, in times of emergency, when medical help is not available, and does not create a doctor-patient relationship. Always get professional help if available.
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An injury such as a cut or scrape can happen at almost any point in life. Whether you are in the kitchen and drop a sharp object like a knife or you’re in the woods and run into a pointier-than-average stick, these accidents are just that: uncontrollable and random. Sometimes, these events happen when you are alone. In case the wound needs to be treated before professional medical assistance can be implemented, or perhaps if hospital treatment is unnecessary, you can benefit from knowing how to bandage your own wound.
Step 1: Get Materials
Cleanser – This can be alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, soap and water, antibiotic or petroleum jelly
Fabric – You will need several clean towels or swabs to help clean off your wound.
Bandage – Wrap or typical bandages
Pain medication – Depending on the severity of the injury, this could help alleviate some of the pain.
Step 2: Wash Your Hands
First, you want to make sure you are not spreading germs from your hands to your wound, as this could increase the risk of infection. Be sure to use hot water, plenty of soap, and a clean towel for drying your hands. For this step we provided hand sanitizer, which is also effective at cleaning your hands. Do not rush this process or skip it. You may be panicked if you have a large cut, but staying calm and focusing on keeping the injured area clean is imperative.
Step 3: Stop the Bleeding
Before applying any materials, you will want to make sure the wound is as dry as possible and make sure all the bleeding has stopped. If the cut is minor, the bleeding should stop on its own or without much aid. If, however, you have incurred a large deep cut, then you will need to apply pressure to the wound. Grab a towel or fabric that will completely cover the wound and absorb the blood. Then, apply enough pressure to the area without causing yourself pain. Check every 30-60 seconds to see if the wound is still bleeding.
Step 4: Clean the Wound
Making sure the wound is clean before applying the bandage will make sure the wound won’t get infected after the bandage is applied. Clean around the afflicted area making sure not to inflict any more damage to the wound. Go around the wound with the alcohol swab trying to remove any dirt or debris in the wound.
Step 5: Apply the Antibiotic or Petroleum Jelly
By applying an antibiotic, this will allow the wound to heal better than without. These can prevent scarring and allow the wound to heal faster. Apply a small amount to the wound, making sure the whole wound has a light cover of Neosporin. Since your hands are clean it is okay to use one finger to help spread the antibiotic. (If you have rubber gloves use them.)
Step 6: Apply the Bandage
Using a regular bandage, rolled bandage, or combination of gauze and bandage, cover the wound applying slight pressure. You do not want to apply too much pressure or have the bandage feel too tight, but you need a good amount of pressure to be sure the wound will heal properly.
Wrap tightly and firmly around the wounded area. Making sure to move up as you go, just to be sure the whole wound gets covered by the wrap.
Once the wrap is applied and you’re out of bandage, use tape or another securing device to hold the dressing into place. When applying the tape, make sure the bandage is still tight around the arm. This will ensure the wound is compressed and able to stop bleeding and will begin to heal naturally.
Step 7: Change the Dressing If Needed Once Per Day
Change the dressing if needed once per day. The body will heal the wound naturally, in doing that you need to make sure the bandage is cleaned thoroughly and the wound has the proper environment to heal in a timely manor.
Step 8: Visit a Hospital, If Necessary
If the wound doesn’t stop bleeding or causes an unnatural amount of pain, you should visit the hospital to get proper treatment. Not all wounds need a doctor’s touch, but deep wounds or wounds that will not stop bleeding should be inspected by a health care professional just to be sure there is not significant damage or infection.
Lyndsey Garbi, MD, is a pediatrician who is double board-certified in pediatrics and neonatology.
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For kids of all ages, boo-boos often feel better when covered with a fun adhesive bandage. However, removing Band-Aids is another story. Even if you're quick, yanking off a stubbornly stuck bandage can be painful for kids. Luckily, there are some simple tricks to make removing bandages a breeze. And the best part is that all you need is a little patience and some common household items.
5 Easy Ways to Remove Band-Aids
In general, bandages should be changed daily and can be removed once a cut has scabbed over. How many days this takes (from one to several) will depend on the severity and location of the wound.
Small cuts and scrapes that are in areas less prone to getting dirty, wet, or touched can often be uncovered sooner than wounds that are larger and/or on more high-friction areas (such as on hands or spots where their clothes or shoes will rub on it).
Consult with your child's doctor if you're not sure when to change or remove their bandage and/or if you have any concerns about how their cut is healing.
Here are five easy, ouch-less ways to remove your child's bandage. Note that most of these methods, except of course soaking in water, work for waterproof bandages, too.
Create a Tab for Better Control
If you decide to just rip it off quickly, be sure to first peel back one edge of the Band-Aid. Next, pull parallel to your child's skin. This will encourage the adhesive to release rather than stick to the skin.
To ease your child's anxiety, have your little one take a deep breath and then let them know that you're going to pull off the bandage on the count of three.
Remove the Bandage After a Bath
Giving your child a bath with their Band-Aid still intact can both clean the surrounding area and make removal easier. Water weakens the adhesive of the bandage, causing it to either fall off in the tub or peel off more easily once out of the bath.
Note that you can also moisten the bandage with a wet cloth as needed, say if it is on the upper body and isn’t submerged in a bath or if you want to skip the bath and go straight to removing the bandage.
Weaken Adhesive With Oil
Soak a cotton ball or cotton swab in baby oil. If you don’t have baby oil handy, olive oil, petroleum jelly, or baby shampoo will work, too.
Next, gently rub it over the bandage until it falls off. You can test to see if it's working by slowly peeling up a corner of the bandage.
Fun tip: Add a little food coloring to the oil and ask your child to help you "paint" it on the Band-Aid.
Dissolve Adhesive With Alcohol
Dabbing rubbing alcohol on the bandage will slowly dissolve the adhesive. Rinse the area after removing the bandage so that the alcohol doesn’t dry out the skin
Freeze Adhesive With Ice
Wrap a few ice cubes in a paper or thin towel and gently rub over the Band-Aid. Ice works by making the adhesive brittle, which in turn makes it easier to pull off of your child's skin.
How to Remove Adhesive From Skin
Rubbing alcohol dabbed on with a cotton ball can be used to remove any adhesive remaining on your child's skin. Other solutions for removing residue left on their skin after a bandage is removed include adhesive removal products, mild soap and water, gentle moisturizers, and baby oil.
Be sure to use a gentle touch when removing any leftover adhesive to avoid causing any trauma to the skin.
Signs of an Adhesive Allergy
If after wearing an adhesive bandage for a day or two, your little one develops an itchy, red rash in the shape of the adhesive bandage, they may have an adhesive allergy. This reaction is caused by contact dermatitis as a reaction to the adhesive. You may want to discuss this with your pediatrician at your next appointment.
The diagnosis of adhesive allergy is made by the use of patch testing, which involves the placement of various chemicals onto the skin, usually held against the skin using paper tape. Patch testing can confirm what is already suspected based on a person's symptoms, but also can identify the particular chemical that is causing the contact dermatitis.
Here you can learn more about what to do after an acute thigh injury.
The recommended treatment for most acute injuries is referred to as the PRICE principle. This is an acronym for protection, rest, ice, compression, and elevation.
The goal of this treatment is to:
- Reduce pain and swelling
- Lay the foundation for a good rehabilitation
We recommend continuing the treatment for at least 48 hours after the time of the injury. However, some of the elements are more applicable than others.
PRICE is comprised of basic principles in the treatment of acute injuries, but should always be tailored to the injury type and site. Always use common sense. If a serious injury is suspected, contact emergency services.
In this context, it means to remove the athlete from play to protect against further injury. This is especially important in the first 48 hours after the injury occurred.
The athlete should not continue with any sporting activity following injury. How long the athlete is side-lined depends on the severity of the injury. Consult your doctor or physiotherapist for advice.
The aim of applying ice is to relieve pain. 20 minutes with an ice pack every other hour for a day or two generally has a good effect.
Even though there are many commercial ice products available, the best solution is often a plastic bag filled with crushed ice and some water. Place a damp towel between the ice pack and skin.
After an injury, the most important thing is to apply a pressure bandage. Using compression minimises swelling, which in turn may decrease stiffness and pain. Place a piece of foam or paper directly above the injury site. This gives additional compression. Start wrapping the bandage from below the injured area, and finish slightly above it. The compression bandage should be as tight as possible without cutting off blood circulation. The use of a pressure bandage should be continued for the first 2-3 days.
Swelling can be reduced further by keeping the thigh elevated, preferably above heart level. This is particularly important in the first few hours, but it is best to continue to keep it elevated as much as possible for the first 24 hours. Remember that compression should be maintained around the clock to keep internal bleeding (swelling) to a minimum.
I’ve had this problem a lot. I cut the tip of my finger on something and it starts to bleed. I try to put a bandaid on, but it just doesn’t fit on right. The sides poke out and it just looks and feels uncomfortable. There must be a life hack to avoid this. How can I put a bandaid on the tip of my finger, so that it fits well and wraps around? I know that there are special fingertip bandaids, but I don’t have them and don’t plan on buying them.
4 Answers 4
We can very easily make our special fingertip bandaid from a standard bandaid by using a clean pair of scissors (consider rinsing the scissors in desinfenctant (e.g. alcohol) or heating is shortly with a lighter before use).
Then we can cut out a trapezoid shape at the long sides of the bandaid to leave the pad in the middle, and to obtain lateral plaster flaps that will perfectly hold the baindaid in place.
The size of both the bandaid, and the cuts we make depend on the size of the injured finger. In addition, the way we cut also depends on the make of our standard bandaid. If it was a whole strip with wound pads to the outer sides we have to remove parts of the central wound pad, if the lateral plaster rim was wide enough and the wound bad small, we can just cut the sides of the trapeziod but leave the plaster to additional fix the bandaid.
First aid is required in many ways, shapes and forms. It is always a good idea to have basic first aid skills just in case you need it yourself, or someone needs it around you. Here is a list with the 8 most common injuries requiring first aid and what you can do when an accident like this occurs.
Cut/Scrape: If there is bleeding, press firmly over the site with a clean cloth until it stops, anywhere from three to 15 minutes. Clean with lukewarm running water and gently pat dry. If the skin is broken, apply a thin layer of antibiotic ointment, then cover with a bandage or gauze and adhesive tape. If you can’t control the bleeding after several attempts with direct pressure, call your pediatrician or head to an Emergency Room. Continue utilize antibiotic ointment and apply a new bandage daily (or more often if necessary) until the cut heals. If the wound appears to be forming or draining pus or becomes swollen, tender, or red, see a doctor right away to treat the infection.
Burn: Immediately hold injury under cold running water or apply a cold, wet towel until the pain subsides. Cover any small blisters with a loose bandage or gauze and tape. Call a doctor as soon as possible if burns are on the face, hands, or genitals, or if they’re larger than 1/4 inch anywhere on the body. If the injury looks rooted, go to the Emergency Room. For a burn covering a tenth of the body or more, don’t use cold compresses; call 911 and cover up with a clean sheet or a blanket to prevent hypothermia until help arrives. DO NOT pop any blisters yourself. If the skin breaks, apply antibiotic cream and cover the area with a bandage or gauze until it’s healed. Watch for any redness, swelling, tenderness, or discharge for these are all signs of infection.
Insect Bite/Sting: If the insect left a stinger, gently scrape the skin with your fingernail to remove it without breaking it. Refrain from using tweezers because that can squeeze more venom out of the stinger, causing further injury. Call 911 if you have trouble breathing, coughing, or develop a hoarse voice, hives, or swollen lips or tongue. To combat itching, apply 1% hydrocortisone cream or a topical antihistamine if the skin isn’t broken or scabbed. Contact your doctor if you suspect a tick bite. They may want to test for Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases.
Use soap and water to wash around the splinter. Clean a pair of tweezers with rubbing alcohol and slowly pull the splinter out. Rewash the skin. If you come across a fragment that is hard to remove, leave it for a day or so to see if it will come out on its own.
If you feel dizzy, weak, sick to your stomach, or are spiking a high fever—or if the burn is severe (oozing blisters form within 48 hours) and covering a significant portion of your body—go to the Emergency Room. If your only symptoms are discomfort and redness, apply cold compresses and aloe vera lotion and take some ibuprofen. Avoid creams with petroleum, which can cause infection, or anything ending in -Caine. When not administered by a professional, these drugs may be dangerous.
Sit upright and don’t tilt your head back. Loosen any tight clothing around your neck. Pinch the lower end of the nose close to the nostrils and lean forward while you apply constant pressure for five to ten minutes. Don’t release and check the nose; it could prolong the bleeding. If the nosebleed is the result of trauma, you can reduce swelling by holding an ice pack against the bridge of the nose after the bleeding slows down. If it persists for more than ten minutes or returns later, call your doctor or go to the Emergency Room to check for breakage.
Sprains, Strains, and Tears:
When a sprain, strain, or tear takes place, the first thing to do is immobilize the affected area, elevate it, and apply ice and compression to reduce swelling. Strains accompanied by severe pain, swelling, or discoloration may require a trip to the hospital. In milder cases, rest, ice, and anti-inflammatory medication will help the area heal.
Fractures are broken bones, and they can occur as a result of falls or other harsh impacts. When this happens, the affected part should be immobilized, and additional manipulation of the affected area should be avoided. Remember that a fracture could sever a blood vessel or a nerve if it is not immobilized, resulting in a much more severe injury. Immobilize the injured part, and transport the patient to the nearest hospital or medical clinic as soon as possible.
Everyone needs a well-stocked first-aid kit at home and on the go. Accidents can happen anywhere, and it is beneficial always to be prepared.
- Breathing barrier in case a stranger needs to administer CPR
- Tweezers to remove splinters or ticks
- 1% hydrocortisone cream for bites or stings
- Alcohol wipes to clean scissors and tweezers
- Oral antihistamine for allergic reactions
- Non-latex gloves to pull on clean hands when treating a wound
- Acetaminophen or ibuprofen for pain and fever
- Thermometer to accurately read internal body temperature
- Triple-antibiotic ointment to prevent infection
- Hand sanitizer to clean hands in case water and soap aren’t available
- Blanket to prevent heat loss after large burns and to treat for shock
- Bottled water to rinse wounds if there is no faucet nearby
- Instant cold compress to control swelling
Safetec offers many products that would go great with your homemade first-aid kit. These items include Instant Hand Sanitizer, Antibiotic Ointments, Burn Cream, Hydrocortisone Cream, Burn Gel & Spray, Oral Pain Relief, Antiseptic Spray, and much more!
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