How to answer a source question in history

This question is purely knowledge-based; no analysis is at all required.
In this question, you get 1 mark for each fact you have written. The facts should be presented in very brief statements. You are wasting your own time if you decide to turn this simple answer into an essay. It should take up no more than 4-6 lines. For developing one point, you may be awarded an additional mark for that point. However, the examiners are very stingy about awarding the development mark, so don’t rely on it. five facts, five marks. Keep it that way.

1 mark per point, total 5 points needed.

How to answer part (b) of a question [7 marks]

This question tests both knowledge and understanding. You are awarded 1 mark for explaining a relevant point and an additional mark for explaining and analysing that point fully, which means that potentially you can gain 2 marks per point. That means that a minimum of 4 fully explained points will get you full marks. If you have not properly explained a point, you won’t get the mark for it. Once again, don’t waste your time by turning a simple answer into an essay. Yet, giving each point its own paragraph will help the examiner keep track of your points and appreciate their value the way you want them to.

1 mark per explained point
2 marks per fully explained point.
Do the math.

How to answer part (c) of a question [8 marks]

There is no need for an introduction paragraph. However, you need to have a clear structure in this answer so that the examiner can keep track of your points.
In this answer, you MUST show both sides of the topic. You must show both why you AGREE with the question and why you DISAGREE with the question. Ideally, the best candidates will provide three points in agreement with the topic and three points in disagreement with the topic. You then MUST give a conclusion, which involves:
(i) Which one point is the most important and why
(ii) Why you agree or disagree with the topic in the question.
Once again, don’t waste your time by turning a simple answer into an essay. Yet, giving each point its own paragraph will help the examiner keep track of your points and appreciate their value the way you want them to.

IGCSE History: Paper 2 (Source-based paper)
Paper Structure

In this paper, the candidate is provided with around ten sources, which include pictures and extracts. A set of questions follow, asking you to comment on particular sources and compare sources with one another. There is one question at the end that asks you to entertain an overall issue using all the sources provided on that paper.

While answering the parts leading up to the main question, some key principles should be kept in mind:

Don’t Summarize/ Explain/ Describe: The examiners know very well what every source is saying/ looks like, so your job becomes not to explain the source but answer the question relevantly.

Show Both Sides of the Argument: Every question will entail evaluating sources in particular directions. As a historian, you are expected to show why the source is and is not very reliable, and why two sources agree and disagree, etc. It is likely that you will not gain marks in the higher bands of the marking scheme if you fail to show both sides.

Find the Spirit: The marking schemes favour the candidates that can give a beyond-the-obvious explanation. Think, “what is the central message of this source”. If you can manage to hack that, the examiner will know that you are no doubt a solid candidate. Even when comparing two or three sources, remember to compare the main or “big message” first, and then later you may compare the smaller, subsidiary messages.

Look at Provenance: In the vast majority of questions, you should also use the provenance of the source in the answer. The provenance is written bellow the source in italics, and describes the origin of the source. For example, a source written in Germany could potentially have a bias toward Germany. A history book extract is likely to be objective. Extracts from speeches may contain false information that politicians use to misguide the crowds, etc.

Cross Reference: Support every point of analysis you make with a relevant fact or two from your memory, or a reference to a quote from another source. This an important step in reaching the top band of the marking scheme. Avoid going into lengthy descriptions using your own knowledge, I’ll say it again, just a quick “fact or two” to give your point the maximum band of achievement.

In certain questions, you may be required to suggest why a particular source was published or what the ‘purpose’ of a source is. In this, the vast majority of past marking schemes have suggested the inclusion of three main items in the answer:

1. Why did the author publish this? Here, you need to analyse the context of time and place of the author and use that to deduce the reason for that publication.

2. What is the spirit or big message of the publication? Here, you deduce the central idea the artist or author is trying to convey to you. Explain this message clearly and fully, while avoiding extensive answers.

3. What is the desired effect on the audience? By audience, one could mean the public, the media or politicians etc. What does the author want them to do? How does the cartoonist want them to feel?

Recently, some more interesting questions aim to put you in the shoes of others. For example, a recent question once placed the candidates in the shoes of Woodrow Wilson, requiring you to write how he would react to a particular source. Here, you get to become bias, and are not required to show both sides of the argument. Use the following steps to answer this;

(i) Analyse Woodrow Wilson’s views using your own knowledge. (Note: the views an ideologies of people may change over time, so be sure to check the date in which the question has been placed)

(ii) With those views in mind, begin analysing the sources like you usually do.

In more complex cases, they have asked the candidates to look at a source with the viewpoint of the author of another source. This means you really have to use analysis of time/place/situational context as well as analysis of the message of that source to successfully hack into the mindset of its author. Then go on to answer the question.

The last question on each source-based paper is worth ten marks, with two additional/ bonus evaluation marks.

You need to go through each an every source and briefly explain why it supports the stance in the question or opposes the stance in the question. Sometimes, a source can be both for and against the issue, in such cases don’t panic- allot that source the side you feel it belongs in. While you briefly go through each source, remember to pick out any two or three of those sources and fully evaluate and analyse them (in reference to the question) to get the bonus marks reserved for such. The CIE examiners have announced a precaution in regard to this question type:

“Source use must be reference to a source by letter, by provenance or by direct quote. There
must be examples from source content. There must be an explanation of how this supports/does
not support the statement.”

How to answer a source question in history

Source questions are often the aspect of A-Level History that students find most difficult, but can also be one of the most exciting aspects of the course. Every source provides a window into the ideas, emotions, and thought processes of past human beings. Andrew covers the basics of writing about the information drawn from the source.

NB: Exam boards and schools

I have organised this post article around the general skills required in most A Level specifications. In each section, I have tried to indicate which criteria these skills help to fulfil on the mark schemes of different exam boards. If you’re looking for something specific, use ctrl + F to search for specific words from your exam board’s mark scheme.Different schools and teachers explain how to analyse sources in different ways: ‘Content, Origin, Purpose’, ‘What? When? Who? Why?’, ‘Interpretation, Knowledge, Provenance’, etc. When I tutor, I always try to develop the approach that a student has been taught in school, so that we build on existing skills, rather than starting from scratch. When using this guide, try to do the same yourself, by working out how the skills below correspond to what your teacher asks you to do in lessons.

1. Use short quotations

This will help you achieve the following mark-scheme criteria:
AQA: ‘Shows a very good understanding of all three sources in relation to both content and provenance’
‘present a balanced judgment…for the particular purpose given in the question
Edexcel: ‘Interrogates the evidence of both sources with confidence and discrimination
OCR: ‘a convincing, fully supported analysis of [the sources]’

Identify the particular part of the source which tells you something. A good historian can learn a lot from individual words. Avoid quotations that lift full sentences, like this one about the Emperor Charlemagne, who died in 814: ‘The source tells us that Charlemagne “will be remembered for the tempered severity with which he subdued the iron hearts of Franks and barbarians.” This suggests that Charlemagne’s greatest success was conquering other peoples.’ Instead, pick out particular words: ‘The reference to subduing “barbarians” suggests that Charlemagne’s greatest success was conquering other peoples.’ Not only is this more skilful, but it’s shorter, saving you precious time in the exam.

Still need help? View our History tutors here

2. Make inferences

This will help you achieve the following mark-scheme criteria:
AQA: ‘Shows a very good understanding of all three sources in relation to both content and provenance’
Edexcel: ‘Interrogates the evidence of both sources with confidence and discrimination’
‘making reasoned inferences and showing a range of ways the material can be used’
OCR: ‘engage with the sources’
‘convincing, fully supported analysis’

This means learning something beyond what is actually written or shown. Imagine your source is Magna Carta, an important document from the year 1215: ‘The source tells us that the king would no longer levy taxes without “the common counsel of our kingdom”.’ If you followed up like this, you aren’t doing any more than understanding the words in the source itself: ‘The source tells us that the king would no longer levy taxes without “the common counsel of our kingdom”. This means that the king was not going to take money unless his people advised him to do it.’ Instead, you need to learn something that was not written in the source. For example: ‘The source tells us that the king would no longer levy taxes without “the common counsel of our kingdom”. This suggests that there was anger at the taxation King John had levied, and this may have caused conflict between the king and his barons.’ The following sentence-starters may help to show that you are doing this:

  • This suggests that…
  • This implies/might imply that…
  • This gives the impression that…

3. Make sure your inferences are relevant to the question

This will help you achieve the following mark-scheme criteria:

AQA: ‘present a balanced argument on their value for the particular purpose given in the questionEdexcel: ‘Interrogates the evidence of both sources with confidence and discrimination

OCR: ‘The answer has a very good focus on the question throughout’

Your inference must be something related to the topic you are asked about. Imagine you are faced with a source produced by General Douglas MacArthur, an American general in the 1940s and 1950s, and have to answer this question: ‘With reference to these sources and your understanding of the historical context, assess the value of these three sources to an historian studying the consequences of Soviet expansion.’ The following statement would be irrelevant, as it is about the USSR’s aims, not the consequences of expansion: ‘General MacArthur’s reference to preventing “global conquest” implies that the USSR expanded in order to build an empire.’ As the question is about consequences, this would be better: ‘General MacArthur’s reference to preventing “global conquest” implies that Soviet expansion may have provoked a reaction from the USA.’


If you make sure that you have followed these tips, you are showing the examiner that you have a solid grasp of how to handle sources.

  • Use short quotations
  • Make inferences
  • Make sure your inferences are relevant to the question

In his next article, Andrew will set out how to go that bit further and achieve an A grade in the Source questions.

You may find the following blog post useful:

How to answer a source question in history

How to get full marks on source questions in History A Level: 2. Using the content of the source (A grade)

This is the second post in a series that shows you how to approach source questions in History A Level, and hopefully also how exciting analysing primary source material can be. In this blog, Andrew sets out how to raise the quality of your answer to A* level by showing understanding of the source in context, and focusing on the question.

More about Andrew

Andrew qualified as a teacher in History in 2014, and now works as a tutor with Owl Tutors.

After studying History at the University of Cambridge, Andrew went on to achieve his PGCE and taught for five years at an outstanding state secondary school. In 2016, 83% of his GCSE students achieved A or A* grades. He is currently studying for an MA in Medieval History at King’s College London.

Could you tell me what board you are following for A-level History? I will certainly help you in any way I can.

– A-level History Student

I will contact some other users to assist you.

Example candidate answer from OCR:
How far do you believe what this source shows you about **** Turpin? Use the source and your knowledge to explain your answer.

Candidate style answer

You can’t believe what Source D shows
about **** Turpin. It isn’t supposed to
be historically accurate because it is just
from a toy theatre. Anyway, we know
from Source E that Turpin’s ride to York,
which is what I think this source shows,
never took place. Even if it isn’t the ride
to York, the picture is just a glamorous
image of Turpin to excite the children
at the theatre. It just shows the
highwayman myth, how people thought
about highwaymen as glamorous
heroes, and not as vicious criminals like
the Gregory Gang shown in Source B,
which is much more realistic, but
wouldn’t be very suitable for children

A basic piece of advice is this: When writing an essay focus on the question and link your answer back to the question to back-up your point. Also remember to reference the sources and explain/justify your answer.

You will know already from school how to structure an essay. For A-level History, you need around 5 paragraphs, including your introduction and conclusion/evaluation/summary.

There are many great books available for most A-level History exam boards and units.

Hope this helps.

KH94 – A-level History Student

Happy to help if you want to post the question and exam board you are working with.

There are a range of essays on TSR! They should help with your structure and response to source-based questions.

KH94 – A-level History Student

Hey I got an A* on Edexcel history A level.

Give 5-10 minutes to analyze sources and mark where they agree and disagree. Remember to PEEL each paragraph. Point, evidence, evaluation, link back to the question

Start off with a balanced introduction which puts forwards your arguments and directly answer the question from both viewpoints. Do not say source 1, source 2, but use the author of the source. Then a very brief sentence at the end of the first paragraph your view.

For the second paragraph I always like to start with arguing for the view put forward in the question. Use your own knowledge to back up the source and then analyze the source in line with this. Then bring in how another source can agree and repeat that.

For the third. argue how the sources disagree and tie in your own knowledge.

Usually you can do atleast one further argument which is in the middle for the third.

Some people used the approach of looking at providence in one paragraph by itself then the conclusion but I always liked to do provenance with the main paragraphs. This also includes saying which source carries the most weight over the others.

Then in the conclusion, it is very much like the introduction, sum up your points and give your overall view on the question.

It has been 4 months since I had a history exam and I am a little rusty seeing as I am doing English and not History at uni. There is much more I could go in to. But Every essay regardless of the question I had a formula on how to answer. It was like a scaffold which I could insert any facts and then evaluation in and then link and it got me an A*. If you are doing Crown and Authority I got 100/100 ums in that exam.

Just as a tip my first essays barely scored C’s. It takes a lot of practice with essays to get it right.

(Original post by ladynova)
Hey I got an A* on Edexcel history A level.

Give 5-10 minutes to analyze sources and mark where they agree and disagree. Remember to PEEL each paragraph. Point, evidence, evaluation, link back to the question

Start off with a balanced introduction which puts forwards your arguments and directly answer the question from both viewpoints. Do not say source 1, source 2, but use the author of the source. Then a very brief sentence at the end of the first paragraph your view.

For the second paragraph I always like to start with arguing for the view put forward in the question. Use your own knowledge to back up the source and then analyze the source in line with this. Then bring in how another source can agree and repeat that.

For the third. argue how the sources disagree and tie in your own knowledge.

Usually you can do atleast one further argument which is in the middle for the third.

Some people used the approach of looking at providence in one paragraph by itself then the conclusion but I always liked to do provenance with the main paragraphs. This also includes saying which source carries the most weight over the others.

Then in the conclusion, it is very much like the introduction, sum up your points and give your overall view on the question.

It has been 4 months since I had a history exam and I am a little rusty seeing as I am doing English and not History at uni. There is much more I could go in to. But Every essay regardless of the question I had a formula on how to answer. It was like a scaffold which I could insert any facts and then evaluation in and then link and it got me an A*. If you are doing Crown and Authority I got 100/100 ums in that exam.

Just as a tip my first essays barely scored C’s. It takes a lot of practice with essays to get it right.

How to answer a source question in history

Royer, LN. (1899). Vercingetorix Throws Down His Arms at the Feet of Julius Caesar. Public Domain. Source:

When using sources for evidence, you need to be able to demonstrate your knowledge of them by identifying their historical background. To do this, you need to analyse your sources.

What is ‘source analysis’?

Analysis is the ability to demonstrate an understanding of the elements that contributed to the creation of a historical source. It answers the question: ‘Why does this source exist in its current form?’

There are six analysis skills that you need to master:

Watch a video explanation on the History Skills YouTube channel:

How to answer a source question in history

How to answer a source question in history

How to answer a source question in history

How to answer a source question in history

How to answer a source question in history

How to answer a source question in history

How do you analyse a source?

In order to demonstrate a knowledge of the six analysis skills, you need to do two things:

  1. Carefully read the source to find information that is explicit and implicit
  2. Conduct background research about the creator of the source

After completing these two steps, you can begin to show your understanding about the six features of historical sources. Based upon what you found in your reading and background research, answer the following questions for each of the six analysis skills.

A historian will ask a variety of questions in order to find out historical information about a source. The same questions can be asked of either a Primary Source or a Secondary Source. There are six key questions to ask:


Listed below are a selection of questions that might be asked of a source by a historian. Please note that not every question will be used for every source.

  • WHO made it?
  • WHO used it?
  • WHO is in the picture?
  • WHOSE opinion does it show?

How to answer a source question in history

Who made it? The Romans in AD 45

Who used it? The Romans

Who is in the picture? The head on the coins show who was emperor.


  • WHERE is it?
  • WHERE was it?
  • WHERE was it made?
  • WHERE was it used?

How to answer a source question in history

Where is it? It is in the Louvre art gallery, Paris.

Where was it? It was in Italy. It is now in the Louvre gallery, Paris.

Where was it made? It was made in Italy by Leonardo da Vinci.

Where was it used? It was used to hang on a wall for decoration.

  • WHEN was it made?
  • WHEN was it used?
  • When does it show?

How to answer a source question in history

When was it made? It was made in 1215.

When was it used? It was used in 1215 to force King John to grant concessions to the barons

When does it show? It shows the feelings of the barons in 1215.

  • HOW was it made?
  • HOW was it used?
  • HOW has it survived?

How was it made? It was made in a factory – there may be a stamp on the base of the mug that gives details of the factory or potter.

How was it used? It was/is used for people to drink hot beverages from.

How has it survived? It has survived because it was made this year.

  • WHY was it made?
  • WHY has it survived?

How to answer a source question in history

Why was it made? Because people like Van Gogh paintings and because there is only one original painting; posters like this enable many people to see art.

Why has it survived? It has survived because it is fairly new and has been looked after.

Example Question: In an exam you should have 50 minutes for this type of question ‘To what extent were the claims of the early Stuarts to rule by Divine Right the most important reason for the breakdown of Crown and Parliament relations by 1629?’
Stage 1 – The Question:Key Word of question – ‘extent’ Date range – start of course (1603) to 1629 Factors – which factor does the question want you to mention (Divine Right) and which others will you use to offer a different argument e.g. finance, foreign policy, religion…
Stage 2 – Plan:Spend about 5 minutes. This will help establish your argument, think of key examples and structure your answer well. For this question I would bullet point import events to do with Divine Right and then do the same for 3-4 other chosen key factors.
Stage 3 – Answer:IntroductionThis should outline key events in the dates provided, in other words, put the question into context. Next briefly state your argument. For example using the question above – although divine right was an important reason for the breakdown of Crown and Parliament relations, finance was important to a greater extent as can be seen through the continuous tensions caused by James I’s extravagant spending habits. Main Body – 3 to 4 paragraphs evaluating factors with PEAL throughout An example of how to structure a paragraph: Finance was the most important factor (Point). James I’s expensive taste such as £16,500 on wardrobe and nearly £30,000 spent on jewels created tense relations with parliament who disapproved of his spending habits (Example). This shows finance was an important factor in the breakdown of relations as James relied on parliament to fund his expensive lifestyle, resorting to unpopular taxes and chancellors such as The Earl of Salisbury which were a constant source of tension as finance was often the reason he dismissed parliament as in the 1614 Addled Parliament (Further example and analysis). The events of James’ reign show finance was a factor to a large extent as it was a constant reason for animosity between crown and parliament (Link to question by showing importance of each factor)ConclusionThis should briefly wrap up your overall point whilst giving one or two examples to support. Do not introduce any new ideas or factors in your conclusion – if they are that important, they should be in the main body of your answer. Make sure your conclusion is consistent with the argument in your introduction and the argument you have built throughout your answer.
Stage 4 – Check:Finally – check! Spelling, dates, grammar, names with capitals! These things all make a difference and are important to get right!

Need help with History ?

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This blog is intended to help distance learners and home-schooling students in acquiring the necessary skills for answering examination questions in IGCSE History (Paper 1: 20th Century History), Paper 2 (Depth Study A: Germany, 1918-45) and Paper 4) and AS Level History (Paper 1: Modern European History 1789-1939). I do, by no means, claim that the information is originally written by me, or the end result of my own arduous study and brilliant mind! It is a compilation of applicable articles found on the internet, as well as in text books. I will, therefore, try my utmost to acknowledge these sources accordingly.

© This paper is essentially designed to test source skills, but contextual knowledge is also required. Contextual knowledge must be used only to comment on the sources under question.

  • Students must use the sources to reach a conclusion that goes beyond what the sources actually tell you.
  • Students must work out: the purpose, the author, the audience or the impact of the sources.
  • Contextual knowledge must be used in their response to support the answer.

o Historical sources are biased one way or the other but they still can be useful as they provide evidence of the attitudes of the person or group that produced that source.

o A third way of evaluating sources consists of comparing what the sources say to what other sources in the paper say. Do they support or disagree with the sources under question? This approach usually gains fewer marks than the first two strategies.

  1. give your interpretation of the source,
  2. explain what you know about the person who produced the source,
  3. explain why you think they might have a particular purpose in producing the source,
  4. explain why this makes the source questionable.

Using sources:

  • The final question on the question paper always asks the student to consider how far the sources support a statement about the events.
  • Students should first check back through the sources and make a rough list of the ones that support the statement and the ones which do not support/disagree.
  • Most of the sources will fall in the category of agree/disagree.
  • Only a couple will not fall in this category and should be put under the column neutral.
  • Most of the sources, but it is not absolutely necessary that all sources must be used.
  • Students should then take the first list and then clearly explain how each source in that group supports the statement. They must make clear which source they are writing about at any particular time (by referring to the source letter).
  • They should then do the same with the second group of sources.
  • Earlier in the paper they would have already have made judgments about the reliability of the sources. These can be used again here as extra marks are given for any evaluation of the sources.
  • Students must not refer back to the earlier answers; they must do the evaluation all over again.
  • They must decide, for example, that a source cannot be used to support the statement, because it is not reliable.

Hope the points will help you to tackle Paper 2. Keep a cool head and meet the challenge head on!

You have to be much more picky with sources to meet this need because only certain choices can do the job. Whether you can use quantitative or qualitative data depends on what your research question itself calls for. Only primary and secondary sources can be used to answer your research question and, in addition, those need to be professional and/or scholarly sources for most disciplines (humanities, social sciences, and sciences). But the arts often accept popular sources as primary or secondary sources to answer research questions. Also, the author’s purpose for most disciplines should be to educate and inform or, for the arts, to entertain and perhaps even to sell.

As you may remember, primary sources are those created at the same time as an event you are researching or that offer something original, such as an original performance or a journal article reporting original research. Secondary sources analyze or otherwise react to primary and secondary sources. Because of the information cycle, the latest secondary sources are often the best because their creators’ have had time for better analysis and more information to incorporate.

EXAMPLE: Quantitative or Qualitative Data

Suppose your research question is “How did the previous king of Saudi Arabia (King Abdullah) work to modernize his country?”

That question may lend itself to qualitative descriptive judgments—about what are considered the components of modernization, including, for instance, what were his thoughts about the place of women in society.

But it may also be helped by some quantitative data, such as those that would let you compare the numbers of women attending higher education when Abdullah became king and those attending at the time of his death and whether manufacturing increased while he reigned.

So looking for sources that provide both quantitative and qualitative information (not necessarily in the same resource) is usually a good idea.

If it is not clear to you from the formats of sources you are assigned to read for your course, ask your writing professor or professors in your field of study which formats are acceptable to your discipline for answering your research question.

GCSE 9-1 & A Level History Past Papers & answer booklets. Available to download to use as a revision tool for you or your students. All examination boards available. Free to download. Use in conjunction with the School History resources subscription.

Practice Your Knowledge with Past Papers

Now that you’re studying your GCSE, exams become an important part of your assessment criteria and preparation for A-levels. The use and importance of past papers, therefore, cannot be over-emphasised. So what’s the big deal about past papers?

Know what you know

Firstly, they help you establish what you already know through listening in class and doing your assessment activities and homework assignments. This means you can identify areas that need extra attention in order to fill in the gaps, as well as areas where you show strength and needn’t focus so much of your revision time.

Keep time on your side

Time management is an important life skill to develop, and exam preparation is one of those ways you’re going to learn to exercise it. By creating an exam time table for your revision, you’ll ensure you have plenty of time to take in all the necessary information. However, it’s one thing to feel prepared for your exam with all the facts, dates and figures, it’s another thing entirely managing your time effectively during the exam so that you get through all the questions without running out of time or ending up in a panic, which will impact your ability to think clearly and confidently. Past papers are the most effective way to get to know the exam environment and practice pacing yourself so that each question, whether it’s multiple-choice, short answer or essay, is allocated the right amount of time in accordance with its mark allocation.

Familiarity is your friend

Exams can be daunting, but it’s especially important to keep a clear head and to have a solid understanding of what is expected when answering a question. By doing past papers, you’ll familiarise yourself with vocabulary, terminology, and styles of questions.

Remember, some questions will be assessing your knowledge and understanding of key features and characteristics of a period studied, others will require you to explain and analyse historic events or themes, while others still will require you to compare and contrast source material and contextualise it in the historic environment. All of these questions require you to substantiate your answers using facts.

These questions will also be awarded marks in levels, i.e. basic, simple, developed and complex. By practicing with past papers, you’ll have access to mark schemes, which examiners use to evaluate your responses. This way, you’ll get to know what’s expected for each type of question and how to answer in the best way to achieve the most marks.

Where do I find past papers?

Right here, of course! School History has hundreds of examination-style questions to help you practice for your history exams. By signing up, you’ll not only have access to past papers but thousands of resources related to what you’re studying, including notes, activities, quiz questions and more. Take a look below at the major examination boards we cover. Give yourself every advantage to excel in your exams and sign up today!

What are some common methods to verify historical claims?

How to answer a source question in history

2 Answers 2

Just like Scientific method exists to prove or disprove scientific theories and hypothesis, Historical Method also exists.

Historians of course cross-check certain claims with contemporary sources including archaeological evidence and thus proceed to create their account of the concerned historic event.

Source Criticism

First step to this is called Source Criticism. According to “A guide to Historic Method” by Garraghan, following aspects are checked in this step:

  1. When was the source, written or unwritten, produced (date)?
  2. Where was it produced (localization)?
  3. By whom was it produced (authorship)?
  4. From what pre-existing material was it produced (analysis)?
  5. In what original form was it produced (integrity)?
  6. What is the evidential value of its contents (credibility)?

The first four are known as higher criticism; the fifth, lower criticism; and, together, external criticism. The sixth and final inquiry about a source is called internal criticism. Together, this inquiry is known as source criticism.

Bernheim has however proposed seven inquiries for this step which includes search for contradictory sources.

R.J. Shaffer proposes to take Eye-Witnesses into account as well. Garraghan further expands on it to include indirect-witnesses & oral tradition.

Synthesis: Historical Reasoning

Second step is called Historical Reasoning which involves drawing best possible logical conclusion from results of Source Criticism.

There are three aspects to it:

  1. Argument to Best Explanation
  2. Statistical Inference
  3. Argument from Analogy

C. Behan McCullagh lays down seven conditions for a successful argument to the best explanation:

The statement, together with other statements already held to be true, must imply yet other statements describing present, observable data. (We will henceforth call the first statement ‘the hypothesis’, and the statements describing observable data, ‘observation statements’.)

The hypothesis must be of greater explanatory scope than any other incompatible hypothesis about the same subject; that is, it must imply a greater variety of observation statements.

The hypothesis must be of greater explanatory power than any other incompatible hypothesis about the same subject; that is, it must make the observation statements it implies more probable than any other.

The hypothesis must be more plausible than any other incompatible hypothesis about the same subject; that is, it must be implied to some degree by a greater variety of accepted truths than any other, and be implied more strongly than any other; and its probable negation must be implied by fewer beliefs, and implied less strongly than any other.

The hypothesis must be less ad hoc than any other incompatible hypothesis about the same subject; that is, it must include fewer new suppositions about the past which are not already implied to some extent by existing beliefs.

It must be disconfirmed by fewer accepted beliefs than any other incompatible hypothesis about the same subject; that is, when conjoined with accepted truths it must imply fewer observation statements and other statements which are believed to be false.

It must exceed other incompatible hypotheses about the same subject by so much, in characteristics 2 to 6, that there is little chance of an incompatible hypothesis, after further investigation, soon exceeding it in these respects.

McCullagh states Statistical Inference as follows:

There is probability (of the degree p1) that whatever is an A is a B.

It is probable (to the degree p2) that this is an A.

Therefore, (relative to these premises) it is probable (to the degree p1 × p2) that this is a B.

The structure of Argument by Analogy is as follows:

One thing (object, event, or state of affairs) has properties p1 . . . pn and pn + 1.

Another thing has properties p1 . . . pn.

So the latter has property pn + 1.

The book by Garraghan will help you a lot to understand the process. Other than that, this brief PDF paper and its sources will also come handy.

How to answer a source question in history

The easiest way is to go directly to the person “responsible” for the said “History.” So your most primary source are court records of people under oath. Even this can be at quite a variance to the facts as thought to be known. although you’d be surprised at how often criminals will commit a crime then brag about it afterwards.

I began my study of History by studying the History of Law itself. in other words “what are people complaining about and how?” In the “arc” of American History such a study yields a true wealth of objective data not just of the past but more importantly of “History that matters.”

In the case of the United States that begins with riparian rights (rights to the flow of water down a river) then moves very quickly into Railroad Law. After that “the Law” becomes rather murky until Nuremberg.

But you do glean objective facts very quickly by such a study.

Then of course there is biography. go directly to the people responsible for some decision or leadership role yourself. in person. and ask them questions. This is especially true if they have or claimed to have authored an “autobiography.” You’ll be surprised at how often the “official story” is at a variance to the plain objective facts. So after these two come “journalists” or “papers of record” such as newspapers known for their reporting of the facts.

Fourth and most importantly never over think these matters. Nothing says “academic” more than “that town, City, entire Civilization was not entirely destroyed/eliminated.” Basically the bulk of academia acts as the first “liar” for humanity. not necessarily a bad thing as the truth usually is quite painful. especially historical truth.


In AS History examinations, different types of question are used to assess your abilities and skills. Unit tests mainly use either source-based questions or structured questions.

Source-based questions
The types of question you may encounter are:

  • Comprehension and explanation of references or issues mentioned in the sources. Here is an example: – Explain briefly what is meant by the phrase ‘people of the free provinces’.
  • Extraction of information from the sources. Here is an example: What can you learn from source 2 about why the Old Poor Law was often criticised in the years before 1834?
  • Comparison between two sources. Here are two examples:Compare and explain the objections made in sources B and C to Lloyd George’s proposals for National Insurance in 1911. Explain how far the statistics in source A support the view expressed in source B concerning economic growth in Russia after 1880.
  • Evaluation of the reliability or usefulness of one or two of the sources. Use all the information available to you – the content of the source, the information given to you about it by the examiners, comparison with the other sources, your own knowledge – to decide what use a historian could make of it.
    • Here are two examples: Assess the value of these sources to a historian studying the reasons why people supported the Nazis in the 1920s and early 1930s. How reliable are sources B and C to an historian as evidence of the relations between France and Piedmont?
    • Here is an example: From source A and from your own knowledge explain why Ulster was such animportant consideration in the Home Rule question in 1886.

    Structured questions
    Structured questions are in two or three parts. The parts are usually related to a common issue and are progressively more difficult. Typically the first part of a twopart question will ask for identification or explanation of key issues and the second part for analysis of causation or assessment of the significance of an issue. Sometimes one or two relatively short sources are provided and the first part then asks you to extract information from the source or explain a reference in it.

    An ActiveHistory subscription provides everything you need to construct and deliver a two-year IGCSE History course from start to finish. All of the materials have been designed by a full-time teacher who has been delivering the IGCSE History syllabus since 2005.

    These consist not just of lesson plans, worksheets and teacher notes, but also multimedia lectures and interactive games and historical simulations ideal for remote learning and self-study.

    This expandable menu provides links to worksheets, teacher notes, and interactive simulations for the IGCSE History topics currently covered by ActiveHistory. New resources are being added regularly and can be tracked using the ActiveHistory Blog and the ActiveHistory Facebook Page.

    • Paper 1 (two hours): Structured Questions

    Students answer THREE questions, each of which is subdivided into (a) Describe, (b) Explain, (c) Assess format.

    • EITHER 19th Century (Option A)
      • [1] Why was there a civil war in the United States and [2] What were its results?
      • The First World War, 1914–18
      • Germany, 1918–45 [Weimar Republic | Nazi Germany]
      • China, c.1930–c.1990 [Civil War | Rule of Mao]
      • 2021: Twentieth Century Core Content (Option B)
          (March examination – India only) (June examination) (November examination)
        • [1] Why was there a civil war in the United States and [2] What were its results? (June examination) (November examination)
          (March examination – India only) (June examination) (November examination)
        • 1. An essay assignment based around the concept of ‘significance’ relating to ONE of the Paper 1 Depth Studies, for example:

        The following curriculum maps reflect what I currently teach to my own IGCSE History students. They are designed to ensure that the IB History syllabus which then follows does not overlap with any of these topics. In this way, new students at IB are not disadvantaged by having no prior knowledge, and my existing studentsdo not have to cover the same topics yet again.

        How to answer a source question in history

        How to answer a source question in history

        A. Online Interactive Testing

        Model answers are an invaluable way of helping students develop both their knowledge and their examination skills.

        The following examples are best shared with students after they have attempted them in test conditions.

        The following tools give students practice at answering Paper 1 questions, and provide them afterwards with model answers.

        B. Printable Model Answers

        The following examples are best shared with students after they have attempted them in test conditions.

        It is a also a good idea to have some structured activities to accompany their reading of these model answers. For example:

        “Describe” questions (a): Underline any evidence of clear contextual knowledge (especially any which you did not know already).
        “Explain” questions (b): circle off any clear ‘reasons’ identified which is helping these answers stay focused on the “why” rather than drifting into “how”.
        “Assess” questions (c): is this answer too long to feasibly be written in 20 minutes? If so, which bits can we afford to leave out?
        Missing points: Are there any ideas or evidence used YOUR answer which these ‘model’ answers have missed out? Share them with the class to help them deepen their knowledge and understanding.

        International Relations: 1930s
        a. Describe the Abyssinian Crisis.
        b. Why was the conquest of Manchuria by Japan not prevented by the League of Nations?
        b. Why was remilitarisation of the Rhineland a risk for Hitler?

        There are plenty of printable factual tests and online quizzes that can be found on each dedicated topic page. Here are some additional resources that will also be useful.

        Revision quizzes covering the entire course:
        Play Your Dates Right Quiz (tests chronological understanding)
        Who Am I? Challenge (tests knowledge of key individuals)

        Class 11 History Important Questions with Answers Chapter Wise: Here we are providing CBSE Important Extra Questions for Class 11 History Chapter Wise Pdf download of Themes in World History in Hindi and English Medium. Students can get Class 11 History NCERT Solutions, History Class 11 Important Extra Questions and Answers designed by subject expert teachers.

        CBSE Class 11 History Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter Wise Pdf

        Class 11 History Important Questions Chapter Wise: Themes in World History

        We hope the given CBSE Important Questions of History Class 11 Chapter Wise Pdf download of Themes in World History in Hindi and English Medium will help you. If you have any queries regarding NCERT Class 11 History Extra Important Questions and Answers, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.

        FAQ’s on Class 11 History Important Questions

        Question 1.
        How can I score good marks in history class 11?

        List out all the concepts of Class 11 history. Then, prepare the important questions from each topic of History Class 11. After that write answers on your own to improve your preparation for the exam.

        Question 2.
        What are the tips for History Class 11?

        Prepare notes with History Class 11 Important Questions with Answers. Read all the Class 11 History concepts without missing. Mark the important points and remember every time. Refer to Important Questions with Answers before you go to the exam.

        Question 3.
        Where can I get detailed notes of class 11?

        Answer: is providing detailed notes of class 11 history. Check out the Class 11 History Notes which included Important questions and answers.

        Question 4.
        Which is the best website to find the list of class 11 History extra questions?

        Good reading is about asking questions of your sources. Keep the following in mind when reading primary sources. Even if you believe you can’t arrive at the answers, imagining possible answers will aid your comprehension. Reading primary sources requires that you use your historical imagination. This process is all about your willingness and ability to ask questions of the material, imagine possible answers, and explain your reasoning.

        As a historian, you will want to ask:

        • What can I know of the past based on this material?
        • How can I be sure about it?
        • How do I know these things?

        Evaluating primary source texts: I’ve developed an acronym that may help guide your evaluation of primary source texts: PAPER.

        Purpose and motives of the author
        Argument and strategy she or he uses to achieve those goals
        Presuppositions and values (in the text, and our own)
        Epistemology (evaluating truth content)
        Relate to other texts (compare and contrast)

        Ask the questions that come under each of these headings.

        • Who is the author and what is her or his place in society (explain why you are justified in thinking so)?
        • What could or might it be, based on the text, and why?
        • What is at stake for the author in this text?
        • Why do you think she or he wrote it?
        • What evidence in the text tells you this?
        • Does the author have a thesis? What is that thesis?
        • How does the text make its case?
        • What is its strategy for accomplishing its goal? How does it carry out this strategy?
        • What is the intended audience of the text? How might this influence its rhetorical strategy?
        • What arguments or concerns does the author respond to that are not clearly stated?
        • Do you think the author is credible and reliable?
        • How do the ideas and values in the source differ from the ideas and values of our age?
        • What presumptions and preconceptions do you as a reader bring to bear on this text? For instance, what portions of the text might you find objectionable, but which contemporaries might have found acceptable?
        • How might the difference between our values and the values of the author influence the way you understand the text?
        • How might this text support one of the arguments found in secondary sources you’ve read?
        • What kinds of information does this text tell you without knowing it’s telling you?

        Now choose another of the readings, and compare the two, answering these questions:

        • What patterns or ideas are repeated throughout the readings?
        • What major differences appear in them?
        • Which do you find more reliable and credible?

        Here are some additional concepts that will help you evaluate primary source texts:

        Texts and documents, authors and creators:

        You’ll see these phrases a lot. I use the first two and the last two as synonyms. Texts are historical documents, authors their creators, and vice versa. “Texts” and “authors” are often used when discussing literature, while “documents” and “creators” are more familiar to historians.

        Evaluating the veracity (truthfulness) of texts:

        For the rest of this discussion, consider the example of a soldier who committed atrocities against non-combatants during wartime. Later in his life, he writes a memoir that neglects to mention his role in these atrocities, and may in fact blame them on someone else. Knowing the soldier’s possible motive, we would be right to question the veracity of his account.

        The credible vs. the reliable text:

        • Reliability refers to our ability to trust the consistency of the author’s account of the truth. A reliable text displays a pattern of verifiable truth-telling that tends to render the unverifiable parts of the text true. For instance, the soldier above may prove to be utterly reliable in detailing the campaigns he participated in during the war, as evidenced by corroborating records. The only gap in his reliability may be the omission of details about the atrocities he committed.
        • Credibility refers to our ability to trust the author’s account of the truth on the basis of her or his tone and reliability. An author who is inconsistently truthful — such as the soldier in the example above — loses credibility. There are many other ways authors undermine their credibility. Most frequently, they convey in their tone that they are not neutral (see below). For example, the soldier above may intersperse throughout his reliable account of campaign details vehement and racist attacks against his old enemy. Such attacks signal readers that he may have an interest in not portraying the past accurately, and hence may undermine his credibility, regardless of his reliability.

        An author who seems quite credible may be utterly unreliable. The author who takes a measured, reasoned tone and anticipates counter-arguments may seem to be very credible, when in fact he presents us with complete fiction. Similarly, a reliable author may not always seem credible. It should also be clear that individual texts themselves may have portions that are more reliable and credible than others.

        The neutral text:

        We often wonder if the author of a text has an “ax to grind” which might render her or his words unreliable.

        • Neutrality refers to the stake an author has in a text. In the example of the soldier who committed wartime atrocities, the author seems to have had a considerable stake in his memoir, which was to expunge his own guilt. In an utterly neutral document, the creator is not aware that she or he has any special stake in the construction and content of the document.
        • No texts are ever completely neutral. People generally do not go to the trouble to record their thoughts unless they have a purpose or design which renders them invested in the process of creating the text. Some historical texts, such as birth records, may appear to be more neutral than others, because their creators seem to have had less of a stake in creating them. (For instance, the county clerk who signed several thousand birth certificates likely had less of a stake in creating an individual birth certificate than did a celebrity recording her life in a diary for future publication as a memoir.) Sometimes the stake the author has is the most interesting part of a document.

        If you take these factors into account, you should be able to read and understand the historical implications of your primary source.

        Source criticism is a specialized field of biblical studies that seeks to determine the sources used to develop the final form of the biblical text. The source critic reads the book of Genesis, for example, and asks, “Where did the author get this information? What written documents and/or oral traditions contributed to the stories recorded here?” Source criticism was used first to analyze secular literature, but in the eighteenth century Jean Astruc began adapting the source critical method for use with particular books of Scripture.

        Because of source criticism’s development within academic circles, it has often been used without regard to important theological concerns such as the inspiration and inerrancy of Scripture. Further, some researchers have developed radical theories regarding the development of some portions of Scripture, leading conservative scholars to criticize the use of source criticism in biblical studies.

        Most notably, source criticism has been used to analyze the Torah, Isaiah, and the Gospels. Regarding the Torah, the first five books of the Old Testament, some scholars have arranged the contents to fit a theory of four unique sources (labeled J, E, D, and P). In doing so, these source critics deny Mosaic authorship of the Torah in favor of their idea that the books were developed by many writers/editors over many years.

        Because of the major transitions within the book of Isaiah, the second longest book of the Old Testament, many source critics speak of a “second” (and even “third”) Isaiah. Their belief in more than one author of Isaiah was based primarily on diction and literary structure. However, their theory has been increasingly difficult to support since the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The Isaiah scrolls found in the caves of Qumran date from as early as the second century B.C. and confirm that Isaiah is a single document, not an amalgamation of multiple authors.

        The Synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark, and Luke) have been a major focus of source critics. The Gospels contain varied accounts of similar events, and some accounts do not mention important events. For example, the birth of Jesus is found only in Matthew and Luke, with both Gospels revealing a very different part of the story. What is the best explanation for these differences? What sources were utilized?

        In the twentieth century, a so-called Q document was popularized to explain similarities within the Gospels. According to this theory, both Matthew and Luke used the content of Mark’s book plus an unknown Q document to compile their accounts. This would explain why Mark did not mention Jesus’ birth—that story was in the Q document, which only Matthew and Luke used. Many source critics consider the Q source as the only “true” account of Jesus’ life and a “lost book” of the Bible. While there were written accounts of Jesus’ life before some of the Gospels were written (see Luke 1:1), there is absolutely no record of a Q document in history. The existence of Q has never been proved, and there is no way to confirm that any of the Synoptic writers culled from a common source. Q is a theory, nothing more.

        Bible-believing Christians are right to be concerned with the skeptical assumptions of source criticism. However, this type of study can lend some valuable information. For example, Luke clearly states that he used different sources in his Gospel (Luke 1:1-4). No doubt Luke interviewed Mary, the mother of Jesus, and it is very likely that he used the content of Mark as a starting point. Most New Testament scholars agree that Mark was written before the other Gospels. None of this detracts from the inspiration or inerrancy of God’s Word.

        Ultimately, the Holy Spirit is the source of the biblical text. “When he, the Spirit of truth, comes, he will guide you into all truth” (John 16:13). As the human authors of Scripture wrote, the Spirit led them to include only what was true. All inaccurate sources were rejected. God’s Word “never had its origin in the will of man, but men spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit” (2 Peter 1:21).

        Reading secondary historical sources is a skill which may be acquired and must be practiced. Reading academic material well is an active process that can be far removed from the kind of pleasure reading most of us are used to. Sure, history may sometimes be dry, but you’ll find success reading even the most difficult material if you can master these skills. The key here is taking the time and energy to engage the material — to think through it and to connect it to other material you have covered.

        How to Read a Book

        • Read the title. Define every word in the title; look up any unknown words. Think about what the title promises for the book.
        • Look at the table of contents. This is your “menu” for the book. What can you tell about its contents and structure from the TOC?
        • Read the book from the outside in. Read the foreword and introduction (if an article, read the first paragraph or two). Read the conclusion or epilogue if there is one (if an article, read the last one or two paragraphs). After all this, ask yourself what the author’s thesis might be. How has the argument been structured? This will be a key to your understanding of the rest of the argument.
        • Read chapters from the outside in. Quickly read the first and last paragraph of each chapter. After doing this and taking the step outlined above, you should have a good idea of the book’s major themes and arguments.

        You are now finally ready to read in earnest.

        Don’t read a history book as if you were reading a novel for light pleasure reading. Read through the chapters actively, taking cues as to which paragraphs are most important from their topic sentences. (Good topic sentences tell you what the paragraph is about.) Not every sentence and paragraph is as important as every other. It is up to you to judge, based on what you know so far about the book’s themes and arguments. If you can, underline (don’t highlight), passages that seem to be especially relevant. Feel free to make notes in the margins.

        Take notes. Record your thoughts about the reading rather than simply the details and contents of the text. What surprised you? What seemed particularly insightful? What seems suspect? What reinforces or counters points made in other readings? This kind of note taking will keep your reading active, and actually will help you remember the contents of the text.

        “S.T.A.M.P.” it!

        A technique for reading a book which complements the steps above is to answer a series of questions about your reading.

        • How has the author structured her work?
        • How would you briefly outline it?
        • Why might she have employed this structure?
        • What historical argument does the structure employ?
        • After identifying the thesis, ask yourself in what ways the structure of the work enhances or detracts from the thesis.
        • How does the author set about to make her or his case?
        • What about the structure of the work makes it convincing?

        A thesis is the controlling argument of a work of history.

        Often, the most difficult task when reading a secondary source is to identify the author’s thesis. In a well-written essay, the thesis is usually clearly stated near the beginning of the piece. In a long article or book, the thesis is usually diffuse. There may in fact be more than one. As you read, constantly ask yourself, “how could I sum up what this author is saying in one or two sentences?” This is a difficult task; even if you never feel you have succeeded, simply constantly trying to answer this question will advance your understanding of the work.


        A thesis is not just a statement of opinion, or a belief, or a thought. It is an argument. Because it is an argument, it is subject to evaluation and analysis.

        • Is it a good argument?
        • How is the big argument (the thesis) structured into little arguments?
        • Are these little arguments constructed well?
        • Is the reasoning valid?
        • Does the evidence support the conclusions?
        • Has the author used invalid or incorrect logic?
        • Is she relying on incorrect premises?
        • What broad, unexamined assumptions seem to underlay the author’s argument?
        • Are these correct?

        Note here that none of these questions ask if you like the argument or its conclusion. This part of the evaluation process asks you not for your opinion, but to evaluate the logic of the argument. There are two kinds of logic you must consider:

        • Internal Logic is the way authors make their cases, given the initial assumptions, concerns, and definitions set forth in the essay or book. In other words, assuming that their concern is a sound one, does the argument make sense?
        • Holistic logic regards the piece as a whole. Are the initial assumptions correct? Is the author asking the proper questions? Has the author framed the problem correctly?

        Why might the author have written this work?

        This is a difficult question, and often requires outside information, such as information on how other historians were writing about the topic. Don’t let the absence of that information keep you from using your historical imagination. Even if you don’t have the information you wish you had, you can still ask yourself, “Why would the author argue this?” Many times, arguments in older works of history seem ludicrous or silly to us today. When we learn more about the context in which those arguments were made, however, they start to make more sense. Things like political events and movements, an author’s ideological bents or biases, or an author’s relationship to existing political and cultural institutions often have an impact on the way history is written. On the other hand, the struggle to achieve complete objectivity also affects the ways people have written history. It is only appropriate, then, that such considerations should inform your reading.


        Read the footnotes, especially when you come across a particularly interesting or controversial passage. Make sure you can answer the following questions:

        Question generation using state-of-the-art Natural Language Processing techniques

        How to answer a source question in history

        Question answering is a very popular task in Natural language processing but question generation is novel and hasn’t been explored much yet.

        If you want to try a live demo of question generation in action, please visit

        Question generation has a lot of use cases with the most prominent one being the ability to generate quick assessments from any given content. It would help school teachers in generating worksheets from any given chapter quickly and decrease their work burden during Covid-19.

        I along with two other awesome interns Parth Chokhra and Vaibhav Tiwari built an easy-to-use, open-source library to advance the research in question generation using the state-of-the-art T5 transformer model from Hugging Face library.

        The currently supported question generation capabilities of the library are MCQs, Yes/No questions, FAQs, Paraphrasing, and Question Answering.

        How to answer a source question in history

        Without further delay let’s dive into the details.

        All the code and an easy to use Google Colab can be found here :

        Sometimes, when I run commands like rm -rf XYZ , I don’t want this to be recorded in Bash history, because I might accidentally run the same command again by reverse-i-search . Is there a good way to prevent this from happening?

        How to answer a source question in history

        8 Answers 8

        Help us improve our answers.

        Are the answers below sorted in a way that puts the best answer at or near the top?

        If you’ve set the HISTCONTROL environment variable to ignoreboth (which is usually set by default), commands with a leading space character will not be stored in the history (as well as duplicates).

        Here is what man bash says:


        A colon-separated list of values controlling how commands are saved on the history list. If the list of values includes ignorespace , lines which begin with a space character are not saved in the history list. A value of ignoredups causes lines matching the previous history entry to not be saved. A value of ignoreboth is shorthand for ignorespace and ignoredups . A value of erasedups causes all previous lines matching the current line to be removed from the history list before that line is saved. Any value not in the above list is ignored. If HISTCONTROL is unset, or does not include a valid value, all lines read by the shell parser are saved on the history list, subject to the value of HISTIGNORE . The second and subsequent lines of a multi-line compound command are not tested, and are added to the history regardless of the value of HISTCONTROL .

        In order to decide how to answer an essay question, you need to identify what the question requires in terms of content and genre. This guide outlines some methods to help you analyse essay questions.

        Analyse the question using key words

        Assignment questions can be broken down into parts so that you can better understand what you are being asked to do. It is important to identify key words and phrases in the topic.

        What are key words?

        Key words are the words in an assignment question that tell you the approaches to take when you answer.

        How to answer a source question in history

        Make sure you understand the meaning of key words in an essay question, especially task words. As Task words are verbs that direct you and tell you how to go about answering a question, understanding the meaning helps you know exactly what you to do.

        Content words tell you what the topic area(s) of your assignment are and take you halfway towards narrowing down your material and selecting your answer. Content words help you to focus your research and reading on the correct area.

        Limiting words make a broad topic workable. They focus the topic area further by indicating aspects you should narrowly concentrate on.

        If you’re not sure about any aspect of the question, ask your tutor/lecturer for clarification. Never start any assignment until you know and understand exactly what you are being asked to do.

        How to use key words

        • Look for the keywords in your essay question.
        • Underline them.
        • Spend a little time working out what they mean. Use the Glossary of task words to help you.

        Example Question

        Computers have had a significant impact on education in the 20th century. Discuss the changes they have made.

        Task Words

        DISCUSS. Look up the meaning in the glossary of task words to find out what it means.

        Content Words

        EDUCATION, COMPUTERS. Content words help you to direct your research and reading towards the correct area(s), in this case on computers and on education.

        Limiting Words

        CHANGES, SIGNIFICANT IMPACT, 20TH CENTURY. Limiting words further define the topic area and indicate aspects you should narrowly concentrate on. For example, in this question, do not just write about computers in education, Discuss the SIGNIFICANT IMPACT they have had and the CHANGES computers have made to education during a certain time: the 20TH CENTURY.

        Similarly, you may ask, what do you understand by internal and external criticism of historical sources?

        Historical evidence is derived from historical data by the process of criticism, which is of two types-external and internal. External criticism is concerned with establishing the authenticity or genuineness of data. It is also called lower criticism.

        Additionally, what is the role of internal and external criticism in the writing of history? This is Internal Criticism, and is often called Higher Criticism, since it deals with more important matter than external form.” 2 1. External Criticism is that part of the historical method which deter- mines the authenticity of the source. The document is somewhat like a prisoner at the bar.

        Beside above, what is internal criticism in historical research?

        Internal criticism, aka positive criticism, is the attempt of the researcher to restore the meaning of the text. This is the phase of hermeneutics in which the researcher engages with the meaning of the text rather than the external elements of the document.

        What is the external criticism?

        External criticism is a process by which historians determine whether a source is authentic by checking the validity of the source. Internal criticism looks at the reliability of an authenticated source after it has been subjected to external criticism.

        Make your learning experience enjoyable by preparing from the Class 8 History Chapter 1 Extra Questions and Answers How, When and Where available on this page. All the Solutions are covered as per the latest syllabus guidelines. Knowing the Answers to the Extra Questions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 1 How, When and Where helps students to attempt the exam with confidence.

        NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 1 Extra Questions How, When and Where

        Extra Questions for Class 8 History Chapter 1 How, When and Where

        NCERT Class 8 History Chapter 1 Extra Questions Very Short Answers Type

        Question 1.
        Who asked James Rennet to produce maps of Hindustan?
        Robert Clive.

        Question 2.
        Is history all about dates? Why?
        No. This is because, there are many events which cannot be associated with a fixed date.

        Question 3.
        Name any four British Governor- Generals in India.

        1. Warren Hastings
        2. Lord Wellesley
        3. William Bentick
        4. Lord Dalhousie.

        Question 4.
        Who was James Mill?
        James Mill was a Scottish economist – and political philosopher.

        Question 5.
        Name the work of James Mill.
        He wrote-‘A History of British India’.

        Question 6.
        Why do we divide history into different periods.
        We divide history into different periods to capture the characteristics of a time, its central features as they appear before us.

        Question 7.
        What was James Mill’s view about Asian societies?
        James Mill thought Asian societies to be at a lower level of civilization than Europe.

        Question 8.
        What was the view of Mill about India?
        In Mill’s view, India was not capable of progress without British help.

        Question 9.
        In which other way have historians divided Indian history?
        Moving away from British classification, historians have classified Indian History into ‘ancient’, ‘medieval’ and ‘modem’ India.

        Question 10.
        Name two important sources of writing colonial history of India.

        1. Official records of the British administration.
        2. The surveys conducted by the colonial government.

        Question 11.
        Are official records a good source for writing colonial history? Why?
        No. This is because, most of the time, the writers of these records were biased.

        Question 12.
        Name two more reliable sources for writing history.

        1. Dairies of the people.
        2. Accounts of pilgrims and travellers.
        3. Autobiographies of iniportant personalities. (Write any two)

        Question 13.
        When was the National Archives of India set up?
        In 1920s.

        Question 14.
        Who was the first Governor-General of India?
        Warren Hastings

        Question 15.
        Who wrote A History of British India?
        James Mill

        NCERT Class 8 History Chapter 1 Extra Questions Short Answers Type

        Question 16.
        Write any two issues that modem day historians like to write.

        1. They like to write on how people earned their livelihood.
        2. They like to write on what people produced and ate.

        Question 17.
        According to James Mill, how was the Indian society before the British rule?
        James Mill describes that there prevailed religious intolerance, caste taboos, superstitious practices in the Indian social life before the British rule.

        Question 18.
        What were the purposes of surveys?
        Revenue surveys were conducted by the British to know the topography, the soil quality, the flora, the fauna, the local histories, the cropping pattern and many other things. They all helped them in proper administration.

        Question 19.
        Can we know everything in a right way from the official records of the British administration?
        No. These records do not always help us to understand what common people in the country felt and what laid behind their action.

        Question 20.
        What do the official records of the British tell us?
        The official records tell us

        1. What the British officials fought.
        2. What they were interested in.
        3. What they wished to preserve for posterity.

        Question 21.
        What is colonization?
        When the subjugation of one country by another leads to any kind of political, economic, social and cultural change, the process is referred to as colonisation.

        NCERT Class 8 History Chapter 1 Extra Questions Long Answers Type

        Question 22.
        What is meant by medievel period? Why do we call modem period as ‘colonial’ period?
        (i) Medieval period was a term used to describe a society where the features of modern society like science, reason, liberty, equality* etc. did not exist.
        (ii) Under British rule, people did not have equality, freedom or liberty. Also, it was not the’ period of economic growth and progress. This is why, many historians refer to this period as ‘colonial’ period.

        Question 23.
        What is history?

        1. History is not only the study of dates, kings and dynasties.
        2. It is about changes in the society that occur over time.
        3. It is about finding out how local things were in the past and how things have changed.

        Hope the data shared above regarding the NCERT Class 8 History Chapter 1 Extra Questions and Answers How, When and Where PDF has aided in your exam preparation. If you ever need any assistance you can always reach us and our team will guide you at the soonest possibility.

        How to answer a source question in history

        I recently saw the following questions on a survey about organizational management, and decided to answer them from my open organization point of view. I’d love to hear how others in the open source world would answer these questions, so leave some comments and tell us what you think!

        What does good management look like?

        Good managers are candid enablers who give me full context, trust me to do my job, and clear a path for me. They are honest, reflective, and human. They stand up for their teams, call out unnecessary bureaucracy, offer advice when asked, and work with me, rather than telling me what to do. They are mentors, colleagues, peers, and serve only to support me, not to “manage.”

        What kind of management culture are you looking for?

        To create real change in global societies and behaviors, we need a management culture that thinks of staff as equals and does everything in its power to enable them. We need people who work together to ensure silos don’t develop. We need people who are passionate, courageous, and kind—non-competitors who are part of an organization because they believe in the mission not because they were recruited to “deal with people.”

        What are the types of management you have seen work well?

        Managers who adjust their styles based on the personalities they’re working with are the most successful. Some people need more structured feedback and work plans, others need to be treated with the intellectual curiosity and respect. There is not one type of management to rule them all. Different people need to be supported in different ways. Managers need to facilitate teams.

        As for specific models, I believe that organizations should move away from hierarchy-based models and begin to think about meritocracies, flexible project teams, creating agility within an organization. There are a number of new models to experiment with. No one should have to ask their boss to be able to work. It’s not productive, it’s demotivating.

        What are the behaviors you think managers should model?

        This is tough to answer in such short form. Managers should write and publish openly and often about the work they’re doing, so that teams can gain a full perspective. They should be honest about the politics involved with decisions. They should all have regular meetings with their teams, as well as regular one-to-ones. They should be clear about why certain decisions are made. Hide nothing. Be curious and encouraging to staff’s ideas. Allow people to fail and congratulate them on it.

        In short, managers should be the first to behave like they understand that living and working in the connected world is tricky. They should openly question themselves and the world around them and provide mentorship for their teams. None of us know all the answers, so let’s not pretend like we do.

        What do you think the main functions of a management team should be?

        Management teams should understand their function as coordinators and not leaders. Management in large, traditional organizations are put in place based on. well, likely tenure, organizational knowledge, and personal relationships, rather than merit. We need to challenge the assumption that someone is a good manager just because she or he has been in an organization for 15 years. We need to create career pathways for people who are not “people” managers, but creative leaders—and not just in the engineering department.

        How can management improve?

        Management teams are ineffective where there is zero visibility up the chain of command. If staff don’t know what is expected of them, and directors / international directors don’t seem to care, staff become disengaged. This is a big problem, but the first step to improving it is to get managers to check their egos and start being transparent about their day to days.

        What is the best way for managers to keep you informed?

        If staff is included from the start, then they won’t need to “be informed.” We should be having open discussions, open debates, and open paths for people.

        How well do you think operational and program teams support each other?

        Program functions do much better (and staff are much happier) when operational teams don’t hamstring them. HR can make it hard to find, and more importantly, keep talent by rigidly following policies and rules that no longer make sense. Finance can make it hard to fund innovation by forcing the expenditure of a yearly budget in order to maintain a yearly budget. IT policies can make it hard for modern teams to evolve and work in a distributed environment by rejecting support or shutting down conversation around technical changes.

        Whatever the situation, a culture of scolding and ostracizing people who suggest something that doesn’t “follow policy” is a dangerous precedent. If the policies are outdated, they should be challenged, and management should support the people who have ideas to make the organization a better place to work.

        In the current version of React Router (v3) I can accept a server response and use browserHistory.push to go to the appropriate response page. However, this isn’t available in v4, and I’m not sure what the appropriate way to handle this is.

        In this example, using Redux, components/app-product-form.js calls this.props.addProduct(props) when a user submits the form. When the server returns a success, the user is taken to the Cart page.

        How can I make a redirect to the Cart page from function for React Router v4?

        How to answer a source question in history

        How to answer a source question in history

        25 Answers 25

        Help us improve our answers.

        Are the answers below sorted in a way that puts the best answer at or near the top?

        You can use the history methods outside of your components. Try by the following way.

        First, create a history object used the history package:

        Then wrap it in (please note, you should use import < Router >instead of import < BrowserRouter as Router >):

        Change your current location from any place, for example:

        UPD: You can also see a slightly different example in React Router FAQ.

        How to answer a source question in history

        Now with react-router v5 you can use the useHistory hook like this:

        How to answer a source question in history

        React Router v4 is fundamentally different from v3 (and earlier) and you cannot do browserHistory.push() like you used to.

        This discussion seems related if you want more info:

        • Creating a new browserHistory won’t work because creates its own history instance, and listens for changes on that. So a different instance will change the url but not update the .
        • browserHistory is not exposed by react-router in v4, only in v2.

        Instead you have a few options to do this:

        Use the withRouter high-order component

        Instead you should use the withRouter high order component, and wrap that to the component that will push to history. For example:

        You can get access to the history object’s properties and the closest ‘s match via the withRouter higher-order component. withRouter will re-render its component every time the route changes with the same props as render props: < match, location, history >.

        Use the context API

        Using the context might be one of the easiest solutions, but being an experimental API it is unstable and unsupported. Use it only when everything else fails. Here’s an example:

        If you want your application to be stable, don’t use context. It is an experimental API and it is likely to break in future releases of React.

        If you insist on using context despite these warnings, try to isolate your use of context to a small area and avoid using the context API directly when possible so that it’s easier to upgrade when the API changes.

        APA, which stands for American Psychological Association, is a format or editorial style created to standardize scientific writing. It is often used as a format when you are writing reviews, articles, reports and term papers. When writing the answer to essay questions for an exam or assignment, you may be asked to follow a certain writing style guideline, including APA. These guidelines generally refer to style, page formatting and citations.


        When typing out the answer to an essay question, follow the general APA guidelines for formatting your page.

        Use 1-inch margins on all sides and a 12-point font — preferably Times New Roman.

        Double-space your document and omit a title page, unless you are specifically requested to include it. Instead, place your title at the top of your paper, centered, followed by your name and the course name.

        Double-space and begin your essay question answer on the same page, indenting every paragraph.

        Style and Voice

        APA allows the use of first person point-of-view when discussing research steps. For example, when discussing any conclusion reached, it is appropriate to say, “I found that. ”

        Answer your essay question in a straightforward manner and avoid using poetic language and devices. For example, try not to use metaphors or analogies in your answer. Precise, clear language that is absent of any bias is preferred.

        In-text Citations

        When discussing any research via a summary or paraphrase, include an in-text citation following the author-date citation system. Include the last name of the author and year of publication from your research.

        You can do this in your sentence or following your sentence in parentheses.

        Brown (2012) states that….

        Research suggests that… (Brown, 2012)

        Add page numbers any time you include a direct quotation.

        Brown (2012) states, “There was a direct correlation between both studies” (p.12).


        Following your essay question, include a reference or citation that gives further information about your sources. Include the author’s last name, his first initial, the date and the title of the book (in italics) and publication information.

        Brown, A. (2012). History of animal kingdoms. New York, NY: Perennial Publishers

        If you are using a journal article as a reference, include the journal title (in italics), volume number and page number information.

        Smith, B. (2001). Bird species of the Amazon. Birding Monthly. 34 (1): 54-57