How to analyze sentences

A simple sentence consists of just one clause.

To analyze a simple sentence, we must first of all learn how to divide the sentence into two main parts – the subject and the predicate.

Study the examples given below.

Birds chirp. (Subject – birds; predicate – chirp)

The boy sang a song. (Subject – the boy; predicate – sang a song)

She was ironing the clothes. (Subject – she; predicate – was ironing the clothes)

The subject is the person or thing that performs the action denoted by the verb. The subject is a noun or a pronoun. It can also be an –ing form or a to-infinitive.

The subject may be qualified by an article, an adjective or another word/phrase that acts as an adjective.

This word or phrase that modifies the subject is called the enlargement or attribute of the subject.

Study the example given below.

My little daughter loves to play with her dolls.

Here the subject daughter is modified by the possessive ‘my’ and the adjective ‘little’.

The predicate consists of the verb, the object and other parts of the sentence except the subject.

In the above example, the predicate is: loves to play with her dolls

The predicate may consist of one word or several words. When the predicate consists of just one word, it is the verb. When it consists of more than one word, it may contain one or more adverbs and/or one or more objects.

When the verb is a form of ‘be’, the sentence will require a word/phrase to make its meaning complete.

This word or phrase that completes the verb and makes the sentence meaningful is called the complement.

Analyzing the structure of a sentence, also known as parsing a sentence, is the act of looking at a sentence to determine its components. The components of the sentence are what deliver the information we need to understand what a sentence is telling us. While this may seem inconsequential to some, analyzing sentences is an effective way to teach and learn better syntax, which aids in better reading skills and more effective communication.

Read your sentence and find the subject and predicate. These are the most basic components of a sentence and easy to identify. Think of the subject as the doer of the sentence and the predicate as a description of what is being done. All complete sentences have a subject and predicate. In the example “I write sentences,” the subject is “I” and “write sentences ” is the predicate. This is one of the easiest components to locate. The predicate contains a verb or verb phrase that explains what the subject of the sentence is doing.

Identify more complex elements in a sentence. The simple sentence above might be written as “I write sentences on a piece of paper.” This contains not only the subject and predicate, now it contains a prepositional phrase as well, which further adds detail. The prepositional phrase “on a piece of paper” tells readers where something is done. Now the sentence answers the questions who, what and where.

Read the sentence for a clause. Some clauses contain their own subject and verb. These can be separate sentences, interrupted by periods or semicolons. They are called independent clauses. A clause dependent on another part of the sentence is typically set off by commas. Clauses that are independent can be connected with a comma followed by a conjunction (and, but) or may be cast as a sentence on its own.

Identify modifiers in your sentence. In the example sentence, “I write sentences on a piece of paper,” the word blue could be added before the word “paper.” Blue modifies the word paper, telling us something more about the paper. Always check to make sure the modifier is as close to the object it identifies as possible.

Identify problems with sentence structure. Incomplete sentences and misplaced or dangling modifiers can muddy a clear sentence. For instance, recast the example sentence as “On a piece of paper, I write.” The first problem is starting the sentence with a prepositional phrase. By placing the phrase here, the reader may be led to believe the subject of the sentence is a piece of paper. This is sloppy structure.

  • Spark Notes: Parts of a Sentence
  • Pollysllabic: Analyzing Sentence Structure

Carl Hose is the author of the anthology "Dead Horizon" and the the zombie novella "Dead Rising." His work has appeared in "Cold Storage," "Butcher Knives and Body Counts," "Writer's Journal," and "Lighthouse Digest.". He is editor of the "Dark Light" anthology to benefit Ronald McDonald House Charities.

Analyzing grammar is a necessary part of proofreading and editing a text for professional or academic reasons. It is important because it makes it easy for readers to quickly grasp the message of the writer. However, to analyze grammar, several factors must be well understood before one can make a correct analysis.

How to analyze sentences

First and foremost, it is important to understand all the parts of speech, and how they ought to be used in a sentence. They include:

  1. Nouns
  2. Pronouns
  3. Verbs
  4. Adverbs
  5. Adjectives
  6. Interjections
  7. Prepositions
  8. Conjunctions
  9. Verbs

Each of these parts is to be used correctly, and a tiny omission or misunderstanding could send a vague message to the reader.

Take this sentence for example:

John is a boy; John enjoys skiing: This sentence makes mention of JOHN twice, when in fact a pronoun should be used.

John is a boy; he enjoys skiing: This sentence shows a fine balance between the noun and pronoun.

Furthermore, in analyzing grammar, it is important to check the form of the part of speech used, and determine if it is correct or not. An example is the comparative and superlative adjectives and their usage. For example; he is the beautifulest boy I have ever seen. However, the correct sentence will be: He is the most beautiful boy I have ever seen. (Learn about the grammar rules that have changed in the 21st century)

A further step in analyzing grammar is to check if every sentence respects the rule of concord. In the English language, there exist more than 24 rules of concord, all of which must be respected at all times. The major rules include:

  1. THE AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE SUBJECT AND THE VERB: The law states that if a singular subject is used in a sentence, a corresponding singular verb has to be used. An example is this: He swims. He is the subject while swims is the singular verb. Also, if a plural subject is used in a sentence, a corresponding plural verb has to be used. An example is this: The boys play.
  2. The next law states that when the words everyone or everybody are used, the object of the sentence must be singular. A perfect example of this is: Everybody knows their
  3. The law of proximity: This law explains that the choice of verb is determined by the noun or pronoun which is closest to it. An example is this: Peter, Frank, and their parents are to blame.
  4. The next law states that when “a pair of” is used, the verb that follows must be singular. An example is this: A pair of boots sit on the porch.

Furthermore, to properly analyze grammar in a text, it is important to check the tenses used and check their correctness. There is the present simple tense, which is used for facts and statements that aren’t affected by the passage of time. The simple past tense is used for events that have happened in the past. The future simple tense is for events that will happen in the future.

Importantly, it is also necessary to check for the use of direct and reported speech. Furthermore, spelling errors should also be checked and properly corrected. Also important is the correct use of punctuation; commas should be used in long sentences, full stops at the end of sentences, and so on. Punctuation like the semi-colon and dash should be used as little as possible.

Conclusively, conducting a grammatical analysis of your work is not just an important process, it is a necessary part of your writing process. The grammatical analysis process allows you to see errors that you might have missed while writing, and also gives you better ideas on how to craft your sentences.

I have this code which should show the syntactic structure of the sentence according to defined grammar. However it is returning an empty []. What am I missing or doing wrong?

How to analyze sentences

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You don’t have a Det defined in your grammar, but each NP (and consequently S ) has to have one by grammar definition.

Let’s do some reverse engineering:

Seems like the rules can’t recognize even the first work as NP. So let’s try injecting NP -> N

So now it’s working, let’s continue Kim arrived or Dana and :

Seem like there is no way to get the VP with or without the P , since V requires either an NP after, or it has to go up the tree to be a VP before taking a P , so it’s relax the rules and say VP -> V PP instead of VP -> VP PP :

Okay, we are getting closer, but seems like the next word broke the cfg rules again:

So I hope the above example shows you that trying to change the rules to incorporate language phenomenon from left to right is hard.

Instead of doing it from left to right, and achieve

why don’t you try to make more linguistically sound rules to achieve:

  1. [[[Kim arrived] or [Dana left]] and [everyone cheered]]
  2. [[Kim arrived] or [[Dana left] and [everyone cheered]]]

Try this instead:

[out] :

The above solution show how your CFG rules needs to be robust enough to not only capture the full sentence but also part of the sentence too.

In English, we have simple sentences, compound sentences and complex sentences. All of them can be extended to long sentences and become a barrier for you to understand the whole article. In some cases, you can hardly get their meanings even though you know every word in those sentences. Today let’s take a look at how to understand long sentences in IELTS reading!

Long simple sentences

To understand long sentences in IELTS reading, you have to know different types of English sentence structures. The first one is simple sentence. No matter how long the sentence is, a simple sentence has only one clause. What you need to do is to identify the basic elements of the sentence. In other words, you need to find out the subject, predicate and object.

Here is an example of long simple sentences: The tall, good-looking boy with the curly blond hair over there laughed uproariously at his best friend’s suggestion.

The subject is the boy. The predicate is laugh at. The Object is the suggestion. Therefore, the key information in this sentence is The boy laughed at the suggestion.

How to analyze sentences

Long compound sentences

The second one is compound sentence. Compound sentences are sentences with two or more clauses. They have coordinating conjunctions such as but and so or a semicolon (;) to join these clauses. Here is an example: I emailed him yesterday but he didn’t reply. For long compound sentences, you can regard each clause as a separate sentence, which will help you to understand the their meaning and function.

Below is an example of long compound sentences in IELTS reading practice.

All these activities may have damaging environmental impacts. For example, land clearing for agriculture is the largest single cause of deforestation; chemical fertilisers and pesticides may contaminate water supplies; more intensive farming and the abandonment of fallow periods tend to exacerbate soil erosion; and the spread of monoculture and use of high-yielding varieties of crops have been accompanied by the disappearance of old varieties of food plants which might have provided some insurance against pests or diseases in future.

The second sentence is a quite long compound sentence with semicolons and the conjunction ‘and’. Each clause presents an example for All these activities may have damaging environmental impacts.

Long complex sentences

Another sentence structure is complex sentence. Complex sentences always have a main clause and at least one subordinating clause. The clauses are linked by subordinating conjunctions such as although, because, when, while and who. Here is an example of complex sentence: She went to the cafeteria (main clause) because she was hungry (subordinating clause). For longer complex sentences, you need to tell which is the main clause and which are the subordinating clauses.

Take a look at the following example from IELTS reading practice.

The prevailing notion that wind power is too costly results largely from early research which focused on turbines with huge blades that stood hundreds of metres tall.

The main clause here is The prevailing notion results largely from early research. This sentence includes three subordinating clause. The first one (that wind power is too costly) explains the details of the notion. The second one (which focused on turbines with huge blades) describes the content of the research. The last one (that stood hundreds of metres tall) describes the size of the blade.

Check out more IELTS practice tests and try your best to comprehend long sentences in the reading section! And for additional tips, tricks, and strategies for the Reading section, be sure to visit our Complete Guide to IELTS Reading.

Analysis can be valuable for making informed decisions based on data and research. Writing an analysis helps effectively build support around a particular idea. Knowing how to write one is a valuable skill for any career. In this article, you will learn what an analysis is, why it's important and tips on how to write one.

What is an analysis?

An analysis is a detailed examination of a topic. It involves performing research and separating results into smaller, logical topics to form reasonable conclusions. It presents a specific argument about the topic and supports that argument with evidence. You can perform an analysis to find different solutions to a challenge in a variety of situations.

Why is analysis important?

An analysis is important because it organizes and interprets data, then structures that data into presentable information useful for real-world applications. For example, a marketing analysis interprets buying patterns, market size, demographics and other variables to develop a specific marketing plan.

How to write an analysis

Writing an analysis requires a particular structure and key components to create a compelling argument. The following steps can help you format and write your analysis:

Choose your argument.

Define your thesis.

Write the introduction.

Write the body paragraphs.

Add a conclusion.

1. Choose your argument

The first step is to determine the argument you are making. The topic you analyze should be specific so you can present a clear, focused argument. This argument should take a strong stance so readers understand exactly what your claim is.

Example: "Corporations should provide more work-from-home opportunities."

This statement specifically refers to work-from-home opportunities and takes a strong stance on the topic.

2. Define your thesis

Once you have your argument, you can begin crafting your thesis statement. A thesis statement is normally one sentence that summarizes the claims you make in your analysis. The claims should be narrow enough to fit the scope of your argument. The thesis builds on the argument by providing specific claims which you can back up with evidence in the body paragraphs of the analysis.

Example: "Corporations should provide more work-from-home opportunities because it creates better work-life balance, increases productivity and improves staff retention."

3. Write the introduction

Your introduction is a guide for your reader to understand what information you will discuss in the analysis and in what order. Introduce the topic in broader terms in the first few sentences, then state your thesis.

Example: "Every year, more companies are adopting work-from-home days and seeing incredible benefits. Studies have shown that this is one of the most desired job perks for employees and one of the most advantageous for employers. Corporations should provide more work from home opportunities because it creates better work-life balance, increases productivity and improves staff retention."

4. Write the body paragraphs

Once you have your introduction, you now have a guide for the rest of your analysis. Each component of your thesis statement should have its own body paragraph and include evidence to validate each claim. Discuss one argument per paragraph. Each paragraph will begin with a topic sentence that clearly presents the specific argument you will discuss. Make sure you back up each claim with evidence from a trustworthy source. You can use a journal, book or statistics from a reputable online source. Cite your resources to give the proper credit.

5. Add a conclusion

The conclusion should include a rephrased version of your thesis statement and reiterate your main arguments. Explain the larger implications of your findings and answer any remaining questions your reader might have.

Example: "Working from home is shown to decrease employee stress, increase their productivity and boost job satisfaction. Many employers understand these benefits and have adopted more flexible working schedules. With satisfaction rates at their lowest in the last two decades and job-related stress at its peak, it's important for more companies to start considering the benefits of work-from-home days."

Analysis vs. summary

An analysis and a summary both discuss ideas and provide easier ways to understand data, but they have very distinct ways of using and presenting information. Here are the main differences:


Presents existing information more concisely

Identifies main points

States facts of what was said/done

States what was included

Reiterates thoughts or contributions of others


Chooses a specific element/area to study

Examines and interprets data

Reaches conclusions based on evidence

Discusses the significance of elements

Discusses how elements connect

May discuss advantages and disadvantages

Tips for writing an analysis

The following tips will help you write a reasonable and critical analysis:

Analyze all evidence.

Make a mind map.

Be explicit

There are many ways to interpret evidence, so it's crucial all evidence explicitly connects to your argument. With every piece of evidence, follow up with one to two sentences giving your own interpretation of how the information links to your argument. Provide more insight if the evidence is particularly significant.

Be balanced

An analysis should take into account all facts and present reasonable judgments. If you find information that disputes your stance, analyze it, then use strong evidence to show your argument is still credible. Use phrases such as "This evidence suggests. " or "Many are in agreement that. " to maintain a critical and credible analysis.

Analyze all evidence

All evidence provides some level of relevance. Always analyze each piece of evidence you present in your analysis, even if the evidence contradicts your argument. Acknowledging data that may not fully support your thesis can help you make an effective argument against it.

Make a mind map

It's helpful to brainstorm and create an outline before writing to collect and connect your thoughts. Try drawing a mind map, beginning with a central topic bubble. Write smaller ideas related to the topic around the outside, then connect the smaller bubbles if there are clear patterns or related ideas. As you connect ideas, themes will emerge. This can help you narrow down your topic and create a thesis.

How to analyze sentences

For example, if I am writing a story about a robbery, how should I begin? Should I start by describing the house itself so my readers can picture the scene clearly? Or would I prefer to begin with the robber himself, zooming in on his old clothes or explaining his motive so that perhaps the reader will feel more sympathetic towards him? Or should I introduce the owner of the house as he hears a crash downstairs, so that the reader is thrown straight into the action (a technique called beginning ‘ in medias res ’)?

At the end of the same story, I might want to finally reveal the identity of the robber. How should I build tension before the shock? Should I use lots of one-sentence paragraphs to slow the reader down? Or should I use lots of dialogue so they can hear the characters’ opinions? Or should I use lots of punctuation like question marks and ellipses to force them to pause and consider clues?

These are the types of decisions that writers make as they put together a story. It’s your job to work out why they have made each decision.

You can analyse structure at various different levels:

Whole-Text Structure

When you analyse the structure of the whole text, you can discuss the following elements:

  • How the writer has chosen to open and close their text.
  • How the focus shifts from paragraph to paragraph as the text progresses.
  • What overall structure the narrative has (linear, non-linear, or cyclical).
  • What narrative perspective the writer has chosen (first or third person).

Paragraph structure

When you analyse the structure of individual paragraphs, you can discuss the following elements:

  • How the paragraph opens (the content of its topic sentence).
  • How the paragraph closes (the content of its concluding sentence).
  • The length of the paragraph (whether it contains one sentence or many sentences; lots of complex sentences or lots of simple sentences).
  • Its cohesion with surrounding paragraphs (how it flows in the text).

Sentence structure

When you analyse the structure of sentences, you can discuss the following elements:

  • The sentence length (if it is particularly short or particularly long).
  • The first or last word of the sentence (if they are noticeable for a particular reason).
  • Repetition of words, word classes, or structures within the sentence.
  • The sentence type (declarative, interrogative, exclamatory, or imperative).
  • The sentence form (simple, compound, or complex).


When you analyse the use of punctuation , you can discuss the following elements:

  • The types of punctuation used.
  • Repeated punctuation and the possible reason for this.
  • The way that the punctuation breaks up sentences or paragraphs.
  • The tension created through placement of punctuation.

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Often you’ll be asked to analyse something that you have read for school. Perhaps you have to read a novel or poem for class. Perhaps you have an account of a historical event in a textbook that you must discuss. Maybe your teacher has you analysing graphic novels and advertisements. You might be reading and/or listening to political speeches.

All of these are examples that invite you to say something not just about WHAT is written but HOW it is written. So how do you do that? One way to begin is to look at syntax, or sentence structures. You can look at sentence length, structure, or type.

Analysing syntax is not easy.

Often critical engagement or analysis of text can begin with breaking the text down into its building blocks, its sentences. We can learn to say something more than “the sentences are long” or “these sentences are simple.” In fact, syntactical analysis can easily be the first place to start diving into analysing HOW a piece of text achieves what it does.

Syntax is difficult for students to analyse. However, the best student writers manage to achieve syntactical variety in their own writing despite their difficulty in analysing the element.”

The above quotation is taken from The College Board’s AP Language and Composition course guide, which sets the standard for high school and university writing competency. It basically means that while you might be able to use syntax variation effectively in your writing, you may not be able to easily identify and analyse the techniques used in passages that you have to analyse.

But there are ways to make it easier.

Here’s are 3 things to look out for to help you analyse syntax:

SENTENCE LENGTH. In analysing a passage you should look at the length of sentences:

– Are they long, short, or medium?

– Is there a large variation in sentence length?

Then you can analyse the sentence length and variation by answering what is the effect created? For example, a sequence of short sentences might be used to create the a mood or feeling of panic and suspense in a story.

SENTENCE STRUCTURE. Identify the structure that the sentences use:

– Simple: a sentence with one verb, one subject.

– Compound: two simple sentences joined by a conjunction.

– Complex: at least one simple sentence joined to a dependent clause.

– Complex-compound: at least two simple sentences joined by a conjunction and at least one dependent clause.

Then ask does a simple sentence follow a complex-compound sentence? If so, what is its effect? For example, different sentence structures might be attributed to different character types in a story; a child may speak in more simple sentences while an adult or character like Sherlock Holmes might be portrayed as more sophisticated which is reflected in his use of complex, compound sentences.

SENTENCE TYPE. Identify the sentence type:

  1. Declarative: a sentence that states something.
  2. Interrogative: a sentence that asks something i.e.; to interrogate.
  3. Imperative: a directive, usually the “you” is understood i.e.; “Shut the door.”
  4. Exclamatory: an exclamation, usually punctuated by an exclamation point.

Is the sentence an imperative? If so, what is the effect of it? For example, an exclamatory sentence might indicate excitement or urgency in a historical speech you might be analysing.

And here’s a short exercise to practice!

So LENGTH, STRUCTURE, and TYPE are things that you can talk about in looking at a passage of text with a number of different sentences.

Now let’s look at some text and analyse its syntax. Read the text carefully and a couple fo times if you need to understand it better. Good luck!

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Ask a native speaker what a part of speech in English is and they may not know the answer. A part of speech is something that native speakers learn very early in school to explain the parts of a sentence. Sometimes, it’s easy to forget the parts of speech- we don’t talk about them everyday. However, they’re all necessary (needed) to build (make) sentences.

There are eight parts of speech in English. Every word in the English language is one of these parts of speech.

Are you learning English for the first time? Do you need a good review of the basic English parts of speech? Then look no further…because this week is all about the 8 parts of speech!

A noun is a person, place, thing, or idea. There are a few different kinds of nouns, but if you can name it, such as a dog , a supermarket , the Declaration of Independence , or Erin (that’s me!), it’s a noun.

Nouns have a few different “ jobs ” (functions, roles) in a sentence. They can be: subjects, direct objects, indirect objects, predicate nouns, and objects of prepositions.

  • Crystal walked through the city .
  • My cat jumped onto the bed .
  • I watched the airplane fly in the sky .


A pronoun can take the place of (replace, substitute, stand in for) nouns in a sentence, and therefore, can do anything a noun can do.

Here are some examples of pronouns:

  • I
  • me
  • we
  • us
  • you
  • she
  • her
  • he
  • him
  • it
  • they
  • them
  • that
  • which
  • who
  • whom
  • this
  • that
  • these
  • those
  • myself (also herself, himself, themselves, etc.)
  • I walked through the city.
  • It jumped onto the bed.
  • We saw them on Saturday.
  • He saw her walk through the door.

A verb is simply a word that shows an action or a state of being. The main verbs in a sentence show actions or states of being.

  • Harry swam to shore. (action)
  • She is the Chancellor of Germany. (state of being)

There are also helping verbs. Helping verbs help the main verbs in a sentence. They help the main verbs form verb phrases and cannot stand alone in a sentence.

  • She will pass the test on Friday.
  • He has been president before.
  • You will be going to piano every week.

In these cases, you need both the verbs for the sentence to make sense, and the first verb is the helping verb.


Adjectives help to describe (define better) nouns and pronouns. If you ask the questions Which one?, What kind?, How many?, and Whose?, the answer is an adjective .

  • The handsome teacher wrote on the board.
  • The dog’s eyes are blue .
  • I can’t play any difficult sports anymore.
  • The small red car sped away.

Check out our blog for more information on the order of adjectives in a sentence!


Adverbs also help to describe a few parts of speech. They help describe verbs, adjectives, and even other adverbs.

Adverbs answer the questions How?, When?, Where?, Why?, and To what extent?. You can usually (normally) see an adverb in a sentence because it ends in -ly or -y.

  • He hugged her extremely tightly.
  • The baby hedgehog is very cute.
  • The sun was shining very brightly this morning.
  • The students spoke quietly .


A preposition is one of the most common parts of speech that shows us where something is, as well as the relationship (connection) between a noun and another word in a sentence. Prepositions are always words of location such as in, on, at, inside, behind, over, under, etc., and they are in prepositional phrases in a sentence.

  • The dog is sleeping in the living room on the couch.
  • I was sitting on the bridge outside the city.
  • Are you going inside ?

For more information on prepositions, check out this blog on prepositional phrases.


Conjunctions join two or more words, phrases, or clauses within a sentence. They are words such as and, or, and but.

  • She closed the book and smiled.
  • I want to come, but I have plans.
  • He didn’t know whether to ask Tim or Jane.


Interjections in a sentence help to show emotion. They’re not grammatically related to (connected, together with) any other part of the sentence and can stand alone with an exclamation mark after them.

Interjections are words like wow, congratulations, hey, whoa, yikes, etc.

  • Wow ! Great shot!
  • Congratulations on your test results!
  • Yikes ! That was close.

Do you have any easy ways to remember your parts of speech? Do you think you could correctly analyze a sentence? Share your ideas with us in the comments below!

Did you like this blog? Share it with others! Let us know what YOU think!

How to analyze sentences

Erin Duffin lives in Hamburg, is an English teacher, blogger, yoga instructor, and really enjoyed re-learning her parts of speech! How many did you already know? Do you think you could analyze a sentence?

If your students struggle to identify the parts of sentence, this flow chart is a life-saver!

Help students learn how to analyze the parts of the sentence with a flow chart that makes logical sense.

Includes identifying subjects, predicates, direct and indirect objects, predicate nominatives, and predicate adjectives.

Use this flowchart and supporting material to provide support as students learn new skills in grammar.

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Are your students confused about the parts of the sentence? If you need an easy tool to help your student understand sentence construction, this flow chart is key.

It’s so easy to use and guides your students through a step-by-step flow chart that they can use repeatedly.

This analysis flow chart will give them the tools they need to systematically analyze the parts of a sentence.

Including subjects, predicates, direct and indirect objects, predicate nominatives, and predicate adjectives.

Use this flowchart and supporting material to provide support as students learn new skills in grammar. Includes a review of prepositions and linking verbs.

Reasons to ♥ this resource:
♥ ready to use — print and teach
♥ students have a tool that really helps them analyze sentences
♥ logical and consistent
♥ as students understand sentence construction, they can intentionally revise their own
♥ built-in summative assessment

This resource includes:
* sentence analysis flowchart
* common preposition bookmark
* how to determine linking verbs bookmark
* four practice pages (applying the flowchart)
* student answer charts (easy grading!)
* summative assessment
* teacher recording chart to monitor progress
* suggestions for use
* complete answer keys

This resource works best when your students are familiar with grammar basics. It is a great way to guide your instruction — use the flowchart for your lessons!

Make teaching the parts of the sentence easy with this flow chart — you’ll use it year after year!

If you need more help teaching writing, you can find support in this post: Writing Workshop


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How can I analyze the sentence " Things she was most afraid would happen did happen"?

1. Is there a relative pronoun omitted between "she" and " things"?
2. If so, what is the function of the omitted relative pronoun?
3. Is "she was afraid" a parenthesis?

Mister Micawber

Key Member
  • Aug 11, 2006
  • #2


Junior Member
  • Aug 12, 2006
  • #3

Mister Micawber

Key Member
  • Aug 13, 2006
  • #4

1– neither; it is a subordinating conjunction.
\2– the subject is she and the verb is was.

Things — Subject of main clause
[that] she was most afraid would happen — adjective clause modifying things

did happen — Verb of main clause.

[that]– conjunction
she — Subject of dependent clause
was — Verb (linking) of dependent clause
afraid — predicate adjective
would happen — dependent clause as adverbial modifier of afraid (I think).


Junior Member
  • Aug 14, 2006
  • #5

Mister Micawber

Key Member
  • Aug 14, 2006
  • #6
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I’ve probably done some pretty horrendous things here, but I’m throwing it out for people to give me some feedback that I can start using to immediately improve my Clojure coding style.

Additional suggestions would be performance enhancements as well as areas where I could use transients if it is advisable.

So far I’ve been told:

  1. I should make use of vector-of
  2. Use primitives such as int and double to avoid boxing and unboxing
  3. Type hint string functions

I would be grateful for suggestions that I use to turn this code into more idiomatic Clojure code.

Here is sample.txt:

How to analyze sentences

2 Answers 2

First of all, good job! This is obviously a complex algorithm and it looks like it’s working.

I’m going to do this incrementally. So I’ll save this and keep editing as I go. And since it’s so long, I won’t get to everything. Plus I don’t understand the algorithm too well.

First of all, doc strings in Clojure go before the arguments. I used to make this mistake all the time. The reason is that you can have multi-variate functions.

#() construction is unnecessary here:

Could this be replaced by using frequencies?

Now it’s starting to get hairy. I may make some mistakes here, because the code is not factored.

This definitely has too many levels of into/reduce. You could do a (reduce #(assoc %1 %s . ) <> states) pattern. Do we need v ? And why are we passing in a list obs when we only need the first? And it’s often a good idea to put the driving sequence in the first or last position, so you can do threading. Let’s try it this way:

This one is very hairy. I don’t quite understand it, but I will try.

So, I tried and failed to refactor this myself. But I will give my general feedback. What this function, which is a map of a map of a map of a map, tells me is that there is a failure of abstraction. viterbi-step should be should be a high-level function which should read somewhat like the inner loop of a pseudo-code implementation of Viterbi. This function relies too much on the structure of the data structures involved. Deeply nested structures are common, but a single function that accesses them so deeply is not. A good rule of thumb is at most 1 nested map/reduce within a function.

There need to be functions which act as your primitive operations here. I can see that you began writing some near the top. You should continue that trend here. Then your functions would be operating at a certain level and calling functions from the level below.

An alternative approach would be to turn the algorithm into a sequential series of steps. This may or may not apply here, but it is hard for me to tell. As an example (not real code!):

Again, it’s just an example. But the idea is that each function takes the data it needs and creates a new data structure that is the result of that calculation. I don’t know if this is possible with this algorithm. But it could be. One hint I can give is that you know you are on the right track when your functions are returning “appropriate” data structures. That is, when the data is a mapping, you return a map. When it’s a set, you return a set. Also, the functions don’t take much more data than they need to calculate the answer. I suggest you take the iterative algorithm description and work backwards from the final output.

One of the things that you need to learn when studying the Bible is how to analyze an English sentence. You may have to go back to your English 101 in order to do this well. Unfortunately, I wouldn’t recommend using a Tagalog Bible to do this. Tagalog translations are not usually reliable when it comes to in-depth Bible studies. You would need an English Bible to study the Bible well. If you don’t know the original languages (Greek or Hebrew), you would have to rely on a very good translation in order to study a sentence in Scripture. I usually recommend the NASB or the New American Standard Bible. This translation follows the original language very closely.

The key is to diagram the sentence and then bombard it with interpretative questions. Click here to download a guide on how to do sentence diagramming. First, you need to know what kind of sentence it is. You can use the Guide to Sentence Diagramming to try to match the sentence you’re studying in Scripture with the examples given. You can also use this guide to have a general idea about sentence structures.

Second, start diagramming the sentence based on the guide. What is important is to understand the relationships between the words in a sentence. Of course, as you do so, you are already making interpretative decisions. Occasionally you will encounter questions that are difficult. You wouldn’t know where to place a word or a group of words in the sentence diagram. This is part of the interpretative process. So please be patient. Keep on asking. If necessary, put lots of question marks. Use this guide below to identify what parts of speech you’re dealing with, so that you can make a better decision on where to place each word or group of words in a diagram.

How to analyze sentences

In addition, you need to start the process of parsing the words in the sentence. Here is another guide on how to do that. Click here. You also need to pay attention to prepositional phrases, because they are usually very important. You can use this guide below to understand the significance of prepositions. Remember to relate them to the object of the preposition (e.g. in Christ Jesus). The verbs, too, are very important. They modify or clarify the original author’s intended meaning, which is the goal of exegesis. Click here to know more about parsing verbs.

How to analyze sentences

The third step is to bombard your diagram with interpretative questions. Although you can come up with many different questions, there are three that I consider essential.

  1. What is the meaning of this word or phrase?
  2. What is the significance of this word or phrase if it means that?
  3. How does this significance affect my understanding of the whole passage?

So, I’m talking about just analyzing an English sentence. We’ll talk more about how to use other tools to get to the deeper meanings of the text. Enjoy!

How to analyze sentences

Interrogative sentences are common because the question and answer form of dialogue is a necessary part of everyday speech and conversation. But what is an interrogative sentence? An interrogative asks a question, and ends with a question mark. Example: “Are you going to study today?” An interrogative sentence re-orders a declarative sentence: “You are going to study today”. A famous interrogative sentence: “Wherefore art thou Romeo?” (Juliet, Romeo & Juliet by Shakespeare).

In an interrogative sentence, the verb in the verb phrase appears before the subject. This is directly opposite to the structure in a declarative sentence, exclamatory or imperative sentence. In these, the subject appears before the verb.

Examples of interrogative sentence types

Yes/No interrogative sentences: these sentences are formed as questions which require a yes or no answer. “Do you like cats?”

Alternative interrogative sentences: these are sentences formed to give you an answer from 2 or more options. “Would you like potatoes or rice with your steak?”

Wh-interrogative sentences: these begin with a wh-word and call for an open-ended answer. By the wh– words, we mean who, which, what, etc. These are called interrogative pronouns. We use interrogative pronouns to ask a question. The answer required is more than a no or yes, and the interrogative sentence does not contain an either – or choice of answers. The answer can be a simple response or complex explanation.
“What is your name?”
“Where are we going?”
“Which exit do I take?”

Tag interrogative sentences: when questions are attached to a declarative statement, thereby making the sentence an interrogative one. “You know how to cook these, don’t you?”

Interrogative sentences can also be in terms of structure a declarative sentence, except that it has a question mark at the end. You intone the end of the sentence by lifting it a bit to indicate that this is a question: You’re flying to Mexico?

An interrogative sentence is very simple to identify. They always ask a question or request information. Simply look for the question mark at the end and you’ll have no problem finding or understanding the function of interrogative sentences. You use an interrogative sentence to obtain information.

Paper Masters has analyzed countless short stories throughout our 18 year history. It is our goal as professional academic writers to teach our clients the best way to write by providing as close to perfect custom written research papers. On this page, we attempt to show you the skills our writers use to analyze a short story by using Flannery O’Connor’s short story "A Good Man is Hard to Find".

How to Analyze a Short Story

Here is an example, using Flannery O’Connor’s A Good Man is Hard to Find, on how to go about analyzing a short story.

Begin by analyzing the meaning (theme) of “A Good Man is Hard to Find” by Flannery O’Connor.

Goals of Analyzing a Short Story:How to analyze sentences

  • Demonstrate an understanding of the form of literary criticism you have chosen.
  • Write a unified essay with an assertive thesis in one sentence
  • Use relevant quotes from the story (at least two) to support your interpretation
  • If you consulted literary criticism (optional) to develop your interpretation, credit the source by According to…

Outline on How to Analyze a Short Story

Paper Masters recommends the following outline structure for Analyzing a Short Story:

    1. Introduction
      1. Hook- Grab reader’s attention
      2. Name your chosen story
      3. Briefly describe the setting
      4. Use two good transition sentences to move smoothly into your thesis statement
      5. State thesis fully in one assertive sentence that forecasts the plan of your essay
      1. BRIEF plot summary (assume your reader has not read the story)
      2. BREIF Character description
      3. Introduce the first assertion of your thesis (provide evidence to support your point)
      1. Describe the major conflicts in the story (use quotes)
      2. Introduce the second assertion of your thesis (provide evidence to support your point)
      1. Discuss how the above elements of fiction work together to allow the reader to experience the theme emotionally (and intellectually if relevant). Be sure to label the theme as explicitly as possible. Use quotes from the story as needed to support your view of theme.
      2. Introduce the final assertion of your thesis (provide evidence to support your point)
      1. Re-state your thesis
      2. Conclude with a personal appeal of the story (consider reconnecting with the hook)

      About Your Thesis

      You must begin setting up your research paper with a good thesis. Here is an example of good thesis:

      “The Story of an Hour” uses a middle-class setting, static and dynamic characters, an ironic plot and typical conflicts to demonstrate that some marital relationships may not be what they seem.

      Be sure that your thesis is a declarative statement, not a question, and discover more precisely what main point you want to make about the story.

      A Note on Content

      In writing an essay that analyzes how elements of fiction convey theme in a short story, use at least these essential elements of fiction: setting, characters, plot (including conflict and resolution), theme and personal appeal. Other elements that may be useful but may be difficult to handle in a short essay are narration/point of view tone, imagery, symbolism, motifs, form or storytelling technique. If you choose to include the more difficult elements, be sure to define the elements for your readers.

      Remember that academic writing is typically done in the third person (he, she, it, they). Please avoid addressing the reader directly (using “you”) and the use of first person (I, my) in your essay. Be sure that your thesis is underlined and at the end of your introductory paragraph.

      Writing an analytical essay takes research, organization, and laser focus. Here are four strategies to master the art of writing analytical essays.

      How to analyze sentences

      Are you the sort of person who loves to prove a point? If so, then writing an analytical essay might be right up your alley. In fact, it’s a great opportunity to use your argumentative skills. But how do you begin?

      First, what’s the purpose of an analytical essay? An analytical essay is meant to make a reasoned argument explaining the how or why of a given topic. You may be asked to analyze a literary work, a piece of art, a historical event, or some other topic. In any case, your essay won't be a summary or description of the work you're analyzing. Instead, it will be a reasoned explanation of what the work means or its impact on society. If you’re writing an analytical essay about a novel, for example, you might focus on a prevalent theme throughout the book (perhaps analyzing the theme of the American dream in “The Great Gatsby” or rebellion in the Harry Potter series).

      Regardless of your subject, several strategies can help you write an effective analytical essay. Follow these tips to put yourself on the path to success.

      4 Steps to Writing an Analytical Essay

      1. Take great notes
      2. Narrow your approach
      3. Create an outline
      4. Fill in the blanks

      Let's dive deeper into each.

      1. Take great notes

      Before you can write an analysis, you need to read or watch the work or works that are the subject of your essay or otherwise study your subject matter. Even though your essay isn’t intended to summarize the subject or work, you still have to be able to recall details and identify common themes. Make sure you take notes about angles that may provide a strong focus for your analysis. You might jot down interesting quotations or key words, evidence of particular themes, or cause-and-effect relationships. This will give you concrete material to build your argument from when you begin writing your essay.

      2. Narrow your approach

      The focus of an analytical essay is typically narrow. After all, you’re concentrating on one aspect of your topic and analyzing its meaning or effect—ensure it’s a strong angle with many facets to explore. Let’s say you want to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of democratic governments versus other systems. Rather than delve into every aspect of the comparison, which would be overwhelming, you could specifically analyze how different forms of government approach freedom of speech.

      3. Create an outline

      This is an excellent way to make sure you are staying on point and have enough evidence to support your essay before you actually start writing. Start your outline with your thesis statement—the sentence that will state the main point of your analysis. Then, follow with a statement for each of your main points. These main points will be detailed in your essay as a topic sentence opening each paragraph, followed by supporting evidence and an explanation for each. Then, add a conclusion at the end to reiterate your main points with a statement that demonstrates how your analysis ties together (or what it means). You can find more tips on outlining here.

      If you need to do more research to hone your analysis, it should become clear at this point. That’s a good thing, though, because it means you'll identify areas that need help before you try to begin writing.

      4. Fill in the blanks

      Now that your outline shows you where you’re going, it’s time to start writing your analysis. The good news is that this should be much easier, thanks to the hard work you already put in writing a thesis sentence and outlining your main points.

      As with any essay, you will use those main points as your topic sentences to start each paragraph or section. But since this is an analytical essay, you will focus not on explanatory details, but on examples that support your argument. To do this, you’ll likely want to use quotations from original sources to support your work, but the key is not to overdo it. Avoid using quotations or paraphrases that are overly long. Typically no more than a couple of sentences should be necessary to emphasize your point.

      Lora Wegman is a contributing writer for Varsity Tutors, a live learning platform that connects students with personalized instruction to accelerate academic achievement.

      About the Author

      Varsity Tutors is committed to connecting students with top tutors capable of providing an incredible learning experience. Our experienced educational consultants assess every student's unique needs and learning style, and help students identify a tutor that is the best fit. This elite group of tutors brings students a wealth of experience in their individual fields of academic expertise.

      Text analyzer is an online tool for complete text analysis. Check the number of characters, spaces, words, sentences, paragraphs, shortest and longest words used in your text or article.

      Online Text Analyzer Tool

      Sometimes we all need to analyze whatever we have written, especially if you work as a writer. You need to check and count characters, spaces, words, sentences, and other things in your text to fulfill all guidelines.

      Well, with our Text Analyzer tool, this has never been easier. All you need to do is paste your text into the toolbox, and it will analyze the text for you.
      You will then get to see many things about your text such as:

      • Characters
      • Characters without spaces
      • Spaces
      • Words
      • Unique words
      • Shortest word length
      • Longest word length
      • Average word length
      • Sentences
      • Paragraphs

      And much more. In short, it is your one-stop-solution to all your text analysis needs. You can then modify your content accordingly and check again through our tool.
      It is a free and extremely powerful tool in analyzing the text in no time. No more worrying about not getting your work done on time or missing any guidelines.
      With this tool, you will know everything you need to about your content. What are you waiting for then? Paste some text now and see for yourself how easy and amazing our tool is. Once you use it, you will never look back.

      How to analyze sentences

      Did you know Grammarly has a product for just about every kind of writing you do? We have an online editor for drafting long documents, plus desktop apps and a Microsoft Office add-in if you prefer not to write in your browser. The Grammarly Keyboard for iOS and Android keeps you looking polished even when you’re writing from your phone. And of course, there’s the Grammarly browser extension, which checks your writing on all your favorite websites.

      How does Grammarly check your writing?

      Underlying all of Grammarly’s products is a sophisticated artificial intelligence system built to analyze sentences written in English. Grammarly’s team of computational linguists and deep learning engineers designs cutting-edge algorithms that learn the rules and hidden patterns of good writing by analyzing millions of sentences from research corpora. (A corpus is a large collection of text that has been organized and labeled for research and development purposes.) When you write with Grammarly, our AI analyzes each sentence and looks for ways to improve it, whether it’s correcting a verb tense, suggesting a stronger synonym, or offering a clearer sentence structure.

      As you can imagine, a complex AI system like this one requires a lot of computing power—much more than a personal computer or mobile device can provide. For that reason, it runs in the cloud, rather than locally on your device. All you need to check your writing with a Grammarly product is an Internet connection.

      When you use Grammarly, you can help improve its suggestions. Anytime you hit “ignore” on an unhelpful suggestion, Grammarly gets a little bit smarter. Over time, our team can make adjustments to the suggestions with high ignore rates to make them more helpful.

      Read more about how Grammarly helps you write:

      There’s more to good writing than grammar and spelling

      Grammarly’s earliest breakthroughs in AI-powered writing enhancement happened in the realm of grammar, spelling, and punctuation correction—a fact that’s reflected in our name to this day. We could have stopped there, but the truth is, just because something’s grammatically correct doesn’t mean it’s clear or compelling.

      Over the years, we’ve continually added new types of feedback to help you fix wordiness, vagueness and hedging, poor word choice, gnarly sentence structure, and even plagiarism. We add new writing checks all the time, so when you see a suggestion you don’t remember encountering before, it’s probably not your imagination.

      All about context

      Grammarly’s writing tools are designed to work where you do—on your phone and your computer, in your web browser or your word processor. The difference between Grammarly and built-in spelling and grammar checkers isn’t just accuracy or breadth of feedback. It’s also contextual awareness. After all, an email to your boss probably shouldn’t sound like a text to your best friend.

      Grammarly’s browser extension, for example, makes stricter grammar suggestions and offers ways to help you sound more formal and professional when you’re writing on LinkedIn. Grammarly Premium users can adjust their style settings for any text field on any site. When you’re writing something formal, you can switch to the academic or business settings to flag contractions, unclear antecedents, and other casualisms you want to avoid. But when you’re posting on Facebook and you want to write in a more relaxed voice, Grammarly’s casual setting will turn off alerts for the passive voice and informalities like slang and sentence fragments.

      It’s easy to get started

      Ready to give it a try? Installation is simple and free. Read on for some helpful tips about Grammarly’s products.

      When you add the Grammarly extension to your browser, you’ll be able to directly access Grammarly’s writing suggestions from Gmail, LinkedIn, Twitter, Facebook, and most other sites on the web. You’ll know it’s working when you see a green G in the lower right corner of the text field you’re writing in. Basic writing corrections will appear inline, and clicking the green G allows you to open a more robust pop-up editor to access Premium corrections.

      How to analyze sentences

      Adding the Grammarly Keyboard to your iPhone or Android device helps you write clearly and effectively in any app, on any website. So you can say goodbye to textfails, and you can relax when you need to answer an urgent email on the go.

      How to analyze sentences

      If you need to write a longer document, check out the online Grammarly Editor (sign into your account to access it), or download Grammarly’s add-in for MS Office (available for PCs) and native desktop apps (Windows and Mac).

      Our team is working hard to bring you products and features that help you express yourself. To learn more about what that means and to get an idea of where we’re headed, check out our post about Grammarly’s vision of creating a comprehensive communication assistant.

      These are my notes about Chapter 4 from the book Beginning Ruby: From Novice to Professional.A book highly recommended for dummies. I found it via A Path to Learn Rails 4 properly .


      This code will read in text supplied in a separate file, analyze it for various patterns and statistics, and print out the results for the user.

      Required Basic Features

      • Character count
      • Character count (excluding spaces)
      • Line count
      • Word count
      • Sentence count
      • Paragraph count
      • Average number of words per sentence
      • Average number of sentences per paragraph

      Building the Basic Application

      Let’s outline the basic steps as follows:

      1. Obtain some dummy text
      2. Load in a file containing the text or document you want to analyze.
      3. As you load the file line by line, keep a count of how many lines there were.
      4. Put the text into a string and measure its length to get your character count.
      5. Temporarily remove all whitespace and measure the length of the resulting string to get the character count excluding spaces.
      6. Split out all the whitespace to find out how many words there are.
      7. Split on full stops to find out how many sentences there are.
      8. Split on double newlines to find out how many paragraphs there are.
      9. Perform calculations to work out the averages. Create a new, blank Ruby source file and save it as analyzer.rb in your Ruby folder. As you work through the next few sections, you’ll be able to fill it out.

      1. Obtain some dummy text

      The dummy file must be within the same folder where you will save example1.rb, and call it text.txt

      2. Load in a file containing the text

      The parameters are taken from ARGV[0] or ARGV.first (which both mean exactly the same thing the first element of the ARGV array).

      To process text.txt now, you will run it:

      3. count how many lines are within the file.

      4. Put the text into a string and measure its length.

      The join method can be used to join the Array back into a single String

      5. Temporarily remove all whitespace and measure the length

      The gsub method String.gsub(RegExpression,substring), replaces into “String” the parts of it that meet the regular expression and replaces it with “substring”.

      6. Find out how many words there are.

      The split method to split a string based on a single character or static sequence of characters

      Whether you're working on a paper, or just want to explore a poem you love a little more deeply, this step-by-step guide will show you how to study one of Shakespeare’s sonnets and develop a critical response.

      Split Up the Quatrains

      Luckily, Shakespeare’s sonnets were written to a very precise poetic form. And each section (or quatrain) of the sonnet has a purpose.

      The sonnet will have exactly 14 lines, split up into the following sections or "quatrains":

      • Quatrain One: Lines 1–4
      • Quatrain Two: Lines 5–8
      • Quatrain Three: Lines 9–12
      • Quatrain Four: Lines 13–14

      Identify the Theme

      The traditional sonnet is a 14-line discussion of an important theme (normally discussing an aspect of love).

      First, try and identify what the sonnet is trying to say? What question is it asking of the reader?

      The answer to this should be in the first and last quatrains: lines 1–4 and 13–14.

      • Quatrain One: These first four lines should set out the subject matter of the sonnet.
      • Quatrain Four: The final two lines normally attempt to conclude the subject and ask the important question at the core of the sonnet.

      By comparing these two quatrains, you should be able to identify the sonnet’s theme.

      Identify the Point

      Now you know the theme and subject matter. You next need to identify what the author is saying about it.

      This is normally contained in the third quatrain, lines 9–12. The writer typically uses these four lines to extend the theme by adding a twist or complexity to the poem.

      Identify what this twist or complexity is adding to the subject and you will work out what the writer is attempting to say about the theme.

      Once you have some understanding of this, compare it to quatrain four. You will normally find the point that was elaborated in quatrain three reflected there.

      Identify the Imagery

      What makes a sonnet such a beautiful, well-crafted poem is the use of imagery. In just 14 lines, the writer has to communicate their theme through a powerful and enduring image.

      • Go through the sonnet line by line, and highlight any images the author uses. What connects them? What do they say about the theme?
      • Now look closely at quatrain two, lines 5–8. Typically, this is where the writer will extend the theme into imagery or a powerful metaphor.

      Identify the Meter

      Sonnets are written in iambic pentameter. You will see that each line has ten syllables per line, in five pairs (or feet) of stressed and unstressed beats. This is usually one unstressed (or short) beat followed by a stressed (or long) beat, a rhythm also known as an iamb: “ba-bum.”

      Work through each line of your sonnet and underline the stressed beats.

      An example of perfectly regular iambic pentameter is the following line:
      "Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May" (from Shakespeare's Sonnet 18).

      If the stress pattern changes in one of the feet (pairs of beats), then focus on it and consider what the poet is attempting to highlight by varying the rhythm.

      Identify the Muse

      The popularity of sonnets peaked during Shakespeare’s lifetime and during the Renaissance period, it was commonplace for poets to have a muse—normally a woman who served as the poet’s source of inspiration.

      Look back over the sonnet and use the information you have gathered so far to decide what the writer is saying about his or her muse.

      This is slightly easier in Shakespeare's sonnets because his body of work is split into three distinct sections, each with a clear muse, as follows:

      I think ‘having’ acts as a gerund in ‘the user ‘s having to’. Without the apostrophe -s, it is not a possessive form and ‘having’ should be a present participle here. Please correct me if I am wrong.


      • Sep 15, 2014
      • #6

      Matthew Wai

      VIP Member
      • Sep 15, 2014
      • #7

      Do you mean your book says the -ing form in ‘someone doing something’ is a gerund instead of a present participle?


      • Sep 15, 2014
      • #8


      • Sep 15, 2014
      • #9

      The "possessive ‘s" comprises an apostrophe and an ‘s’, but I don’t think it’s called " apostrophe -s". Well, I may be wrong.


      • Sep 15, 2014
      • #10


      VIP Member
      • Sep 15, 2014
      • #11

      ***** NOT A TEACHER *****

      Hello, Mr. Corter:

      May I add my two bits (humble opinion) to the interesting discussion?

      Here is what I was taught:

      "Things change instantly, without the user having to press a button."

      1. "Without" is a preposition.

      a. Thus, it needs a (pro)noun as an object. (For example: Without the need to press a button)

      2. The writer of that sentence decided to use an -ing word ("having").

      a. An -ing word that is used as a noun is usually called a gerund.

      i. A gerund is a verb form used as a noun.

      3. As the other members reminded us, the subject of the gerund can be in the possessive case or not.

      4. In my opinion, many books would probably prefer "without the user‘s having to press a button." But I am sure that some books might even prefer simply "user."

      i. "Things change instantly, without you having to press the button."
      ii. "Things change instantly, without your having to press the button."

      (I personally prefer the sound of 4.a.ii.)

      In fact, one could simply say: "Things change instantly, without having to press the button."


      • Sep 15, 2014
      • #12

      Hello Dear Moderator.
      Do you know how can i analyze that sentence?
      "Having" in this sentence is gerund?
      If it is gerund, what does whole sentence mean?

      Matthew Wai

      VIP Member
      • Sep 15, 2014
      • #13

      I take it to mean ‘things change instantly in the browser, the user doesn’t have to press a Submit button’.

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      Please don’t ask us to do or correct your homework; this is a place to discuss language.

      I want to make a function which changes sentence into the followings when the function takes grammarNonterminal and sentence as arguments.

      I know I have to use ReplaceList , Map and Union to achieve this.

      Is there a simple way to do this?

      What I wanted to do is something like below.

      First, you make a function applyRule :

      And then make a function to change sentence into

      by using applyRule , Map , and Union .

      but this doesn’t give me the result that I want.

      How to analyze sentences

      1 Answer 1

      Anyway, despite all of my comments, here’s my best go at this problem. It’s not general, and it doesn’t exactly match your syntax, so perhaps someone else will come along and fix it, but this is at least a good start.

      I’ve taken the liberty of changing your notation in a number of ways.

      Lower-case letters for the parts-of-speech.

      Instead of I will use d[“the”] .

      Let’s define our parser as the following (neatened up per a comment from Simon Woods):

      Due to the way that ReplaceAll works, once it replaces an entire expression, it doesn’t replace sub-expressions of that expression. I’m taking advantage of that to replace one thing at a time so that we can get out a list of steps. I have also made the more global rules first; for instance, the rule that puts together the whole sentence comes first in the list. Finally, we use FixedPointList in order to replace phrases in this sentence until it doesn’t change anymore.

      If you don’t care about the steps taken to get to the end, we can instead use ReplaceRepeated :

      The sentence is

      It doesn’t exactly do things in exactly the order you requested, but it gets this simple job done.

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