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How to analyze poop

This article was co-authored by Roy Nattiv, MD. Dr. Roy Nattiv is a board-certified Pediatric Gastroenterologist in Los Angeles, California. who specializes in a broad range of pediatric gastrointestinal and nutritional illnesses such as constipation, diarrhea, reflux, food allergies, poor weight gain, SIBO, IBD, and IBS. Dr. Nattiv received his undergrad degree from the University of California, Berkeley, and his medical degree (MD) from the Sackler School of Medicine in Tel Aviv, Israel. He completed his pediatric residency at the Children’s Hospital at Montefiore, Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York, and his fellowship at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). While at UCSF, he was a California Institute of Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) fellowship trainee and was awarded the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) Fellow to Faculty Award in Pediatric IBD Research. In addition to his clinical work, Dr. Nattiv is active in the research community and has been published in several high-impact medical journals.

There are 17 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page.

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Sometimes, if you need to go to the bathroom, there might not be an available one. You have no choice but to hold it. It’s a difficult situation to be in, but it is manageable. You can take a few steps to hold it in, but the best option is to get to a bathroom as soon as you can. You can also try eating or avoiding certain foods to help you get on a schedule. If your issue is you don’t like going in public places, you can take a few steps to address that issue so you feel more comfortable.

This article was co-authored by Dale Prokupek, MD and by wikiHow staff writer, Hunter Rising. Dale Prokupek, MD is a board-certified Internist and Gastroenterologist who runs a private practice based in Los Angeles, California. Dr. Prokupek is also a staff physician at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and an associate clinical professor of medicine at the Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Dr. Prokupek has over 30 years of medical experience and specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the liver, stomach, and colon, including chronic hepatitis C, colon cancer, hemorrhoids, anal condyloma, and digestive diseases related to chronic immune deficiency. He holds a BS in Zoology from the University of Wisconsin – Madison and an MD from the Medical College of Wisconsin. He completed an internal medicine residency at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and a gastroenterology fellowship at the UCLA Geffen School of Medicine.

There are 14 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page.

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Having regular bowel movements is important for maintaining your digestive health. Luckily, there are a lot of things you can do to help keep your body regular and increase how often you have to go. We’ll start with some general advice about properly going to the bathroom and move on to diet and lifestyle changes you can make to stay healthy.

Here are 10 things you can try that will help you have regular bowel movements.

This article was co-authored by Roy Nattiv, MD. Dr. Roy Nattiv is a board-certified Pediatric Gastroenterologist in Los Angeles, California. who specializes in a broad range of pediatric gastrointestinal and nutritional illnesses such as constipation, diarrhea, reflux, food allergies, poor weight gain, SIBO, IBD, and IBS. Dr. Nattiv received his undergrad degree from the University of California, Berkeley, and his medical degree (MD) from the Sackler School of Medicine in Tel Aviv, Israel. He completed his pediatric residency at the Children’s Hospital at Montefiore, Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York, and his fellowship at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). While at UCSF, he was a California Institute of Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) fellowship trainee and was awarded the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) Fellow to Faculty Award in Pediatric IBD Research. In addition to his clinical work, Dr. Nattiv is active in the research community and has been published in several high-impact medical journals.

There are 9 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page.

wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. This article received 22 testimonials and 94% of readers who voted found it helpful, earning it our reader-approved status.

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Okay, this is an embarrassing one. Maybe there’s a time that you need to hold in your poop. Who knows what it is? You’re somewhere you can’t escape to the bathroom. Or you’re too embarrassed to use it. What do you do? There are tips that will help you temporarily hold in your poop.

How to analyze poop

Analyzing the microbes in your poop gives us a good picture of which microbes are living in your gut (collectively known as the gut microbiome) and how they may be contributing to your overall health.

Although scientists have only begun unraveling the secrets of the microbiome over the past few years, we already know that the inhabitants of your gut can have a considerable impact on your health

A healthy gut microbiome may protect you against many health conditions, including metabolic diseases, digestive disorders, and even mental health problems. Your gut microbiome also affects how your body breaks down and responds to different foods.

The good news is that even if your microbiome isn’t at its best right now, it is not permanent: you can build a better microbiome by changing the way you eat.

But first, you need to know what’s going on in your gut right now. And that’s where our cutting-edge microbiome analysis comes in.

How we analyze your microbiome

Once you have collected your poop sample as part of the ZOE at-home test, you put it in a special container with a solution that helps protect it and stop new microbes from growing. Then you send it back to us, and we pass it on to our laboratory.

Next, a team of scientists in the lab extracts the microbial DNA in your sample from everything else in your poop. Finally, they read the DNA using a technique called shotgun metagenomics, which reveals exactly which bugs are living in your gut and how abundant each type is.

Here’s how it works.

All the microbial DNA from your poop sample is cut into short fragments. Then we use a high-tech machine that reads the genetic code of a selection of these fragments, giving a snapshot of all the microbial DNA that’s in there.

Once we have the DNA sequences, we move from the laboratory to our computers and get to the most challenging part of the process: figuring out which microbes all the different snippets of DNA belong to.

It’s a bit like taking a famous painting like the Mona Lisa and photocopying it 10,000 times, then chopping it up into thousands of pieces, throwing away 95% of them, putting the remaining pieces in a box, and asking someone to recreate the original picture.

All of this takes time. The process of reading the DNA fragments alone takes around 48 hours. And because every microbiome we analyze is unique, figuring out which bugs are in there takes another 2-3 days.

So once the microbial Mona Lisa is reassembled and we know exactly which microbes are in your gut and how many there are of each, what exactly do we look for? What makes a healthy or an unhealthy microbiome?

How diverse is your microbiome?

First, we look at your overall microbiome diversity. This means how many different types of microbes are living in your gut.

A higher diversity of ‘good’ gut bugs is beneficial for your health. Research suggests that having a wide array of microbes in our gut makes our microbiome more capable and resilient.

A more diverse microbiome with more ‘good’ bugs works better than a microbiome with relatively few kinds of ‘good’ bacteria because if one microbe is unable to fulfill its function, another is available to step in.

Which ‘good’ and ‘bad’ gut bacteria do you have?

Through our research, we have identified a panel of 15 ‘good’ and 15 ‘bad’ types of microbes associated with ‘good’ and ‘bad’ markers of health, along with their favorite foods.

We look at which of these good and bad microbes you have and put all this information together to come up with your ZOE Microbiome Health Score™.

All of these insights feed into your personalized nutrition advice. This includes recommendations for foods that you can include to help the ‘good’ bugs to thrive and those you should limit to prevent the ‘bad’ ones from growing, to help improve your gut health.

Want to find out more about your gut health and how you can eat to support your gut? Check out our ZOE test kit and get started on your journey to understand your unique biology today.

An experimental toilet out of Stanford University identifies users by their finger and anal prints while gathering data for urine and stool analysis, a new study reports.

Journalist Bonnie Burton writes about movies, TV shows, comics, science and robots. She is the author of the books Live or Die: Survival Hacks, Wizarding World: Movie Magic Amazing Artifacts, The Star Wars Craft Book, Girls Against Girls, Draw Star Wars, Planets in Peril and more! E-mail Bonnie.

Going to the bathroom could end up relieving your health anxieties as well as your bladder. Researchers have created a smart toilet that can analyze feces and urine for various diseases and some forms of cancer. The experimental toilet can also identify users by both their unique fingerprints, and even their anal prints. Yes, those exist.

The researchers from Stanford University published their findings in a new study in Nature Biomedical Engineering science journal on Monday. Twenty-one participants tested the smart toilet over the course of several months.

“The smart toilet is the perfect way to harness a source of data that’s typically ignored, and the user doesn’t have to do anything differently,” lead study researcher Sanjiv Gambhir said in a statement.

How to analyze poop

Here’s a more detailed look at the defecation monitoring module of the toilet system that uses pressure sensors and video camera to collect data.

Sanjiv S. Gambhir/Nature Biomedical Engineering

The toilet used for the study was actually a basic toilet with high-tech motion-sensing tools attached inside the bowl. The toilet records video of the user’s urine and feces which is then processed by algorithms that can determine urine stream time and volume, as well as a stool sample’s viscosity.

The experimental toilet also uses uranalysis strips to measure the urine’s white blood cell count and detect levels of proteins that best determine if the user is healthy or suffering from bladder infections, cancers, diabetes or possible kidney failure.

The collected toilet data is stored in a cloud-based system for doctors to access later.

How to analyze poop

Here’s a closer look at the schematic of the smart toilet system, including the analprint scan process.

Sanjiv S. Gambhir/Nature Biomedical Engineering

One of the more unusual features of this smart toilet is a built-in identification system that reads the user’s fingerprints on the toilet flush handle, and even weirder. an anus-recognition system.

“The whole point is to provide precise, individualized health feedback, so we needed to make sure the toilet could discern between users,” Gambhir said. “We know it seems weird, but as it turns out, your anal print is unique.”

The anal and fingerprint scans enable users to be matched to their specific data, which comes in handy if more than one person is using the same smart toilet. While the toilet does take scans of the anal print, it does not share those images to the user’s cloud or doctors.

What’s next? More participants in the study and the ability to integrate molecular features into stool analysis.

How to analyze poopDid you know that your poop is a pretty good indicator about your health and diet? It can also be used as an indicator of your gut health, which is why things like consistency of your poop matters, as well as how frequent you need to go to the bathroom. If you’re looking to help track your health, then this smart toilet could be of interest to you.

It appears that a group of researchers are working on developing a sensor package for your toilet that will turn it into a smart toilet. By smart toilet, we mean a toilet that comes with sensors that have the ability to analyze your poop whenever you go to the toilet, thus allowing you to monitor your health from the comfort of your home.

These sensors will be able to check for things like consistency, color, and even glucose levels and red blood cell count. To help protect the user’s privacy, the researchers have proposed using biometric security. This not only involves using fingerprint scanners to authenticate the user, but by also relying on “analprinting”.

Yes, this is exactly what it sounds like, where the creases of your anus can be used to identify and authenticate you when you are using this system (apparently the creases of our anus are unique to each of us). We’re not sure when the researchers plan to turn their tech into an actual product, but it does sound like an intriguing idea nonetheless.

The future is incredible with its intelligence that keeps growing each day that goes by. Now, toilets will be able to scan your bodily waste and let you know about your state of health along with if you have any risk of disease. That’s impressive!

Micron is the company that’s developing this smart artificial intelligence (AI) toilet that may one day be your doctor in the future. The major goal of this technology is to recognize the signs of health issues, diseases, or ailments earlier on to possibly save some lives. “Imagine smart toilets in the future that will be analyzing human waste in real-time every day. You don’t need to be going to visit a physician every six months. If any sign of disease starts showing up, you’ll be able to catch it much faster because of urine analysis and stool analysis,” said Sanjay Mehrotra, Chief Executive of Memory Chipmaker Micron Technology.

The ability of the smart toilet to perform fecal and urine analysis is actually not surprising as artificial intelligence is already currently capable of detecting diabetes or Alzheimer’s disease from scans. Stool and urine samples are the most commonly used test to determine patients’ health. The fecal analysis helps diagnose conditions affecting the digestive tract while the urine analysis can find certain illnesses. These samples can reveal a number of conditions such as stomach infections, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, Kidney disease, Liver disease, diabetes, and sexually transmitted infections.

All solid and liquid bodily waste is just made up of byproducts from bodily processes including digestion and detoxification. It’s the concentration of these chemical compounds that can show if there are any issues with your body.

Furthermore, once the AI toilet analyzes the urine and feces, the reports could then be uploaded to the internet to be sent directly to a doctor. This could potentially save you and your doctor’s time to do more tests. The researchers believe that analyzing human waste in real-time could be the best way to spot any trouble signs earlier on.

Mehrotra said: “Medicine is going toward precision medicine and precision health.”

As smartphone devices continue to be developed, it’s only a matter of time before revolutionary healthcare improvements are introduced to all kinds of different appliances that we regularly use every day.

How to analyze poop

Another smart toilet sold by Ideaing

Other Smart Toilets

  • Scientists at Cambridge University have come up with ways to make toilets test people’s urine for blood sugar, alcohol levels, and also if they’re depressed, pregnant, a smoker, or using drugs.
  • A Japanese company created a toilet that measures someone’s urine flow rate, which can indicate prostate cancer or bladder problems.
  • Japanese tech company Sharp Corp invented a smart litterbox to analyze the urine of cats and track their body weight to test for abnormalities. This device costs only £175 and sends a daily health report for up to three pets to the owner’s smartphone.

What Color Is Your Urine?

A good indicator of multiple health conditions is the color of someone’s pee. According to Dr. Luke Powles from Bupa Health Clinics and Cosmopolitan, listed below are what some of the colors mean:

Pale straw

  • The healthiest urine color reveals a person is hydrated enough.

Lighter than pale straw

  • The individual is probably drinking more water than they need to, which is typically harmless. Although this may cause them to urinate a lot more than usual.

Dark yellow

  • Amber-colored urine indicates extreme dehydration and the individual should immediately drink water.

Green

  • Usually harmless and occurs as a result of eating certain foods such as asparagus or artificial colorings.
  • In rare cases, It’s a sign of a rare genetic disease called familial hypercalcemia, which causes abnormally high calcium levels in the blood.
  • Sometimes it can be a side effect of certain green medications.
  • Usually due to eating particular red foods, such as beetroot.
  • It can possibly be due to blood, such as during menstruation.
  • In serious cases, it’s because of infections or even cancers.

If people are unable to find the connection between their red urine and food they have eaten recently, they should immediately visit their GP.

How to analyze poop

An artificial intelligence tool under development at Duke University can be added to the standard toilet to help analyze patients’ stool and give gastroenterologists the information they need to provide appropriate treatment, according to research that was selected for presentation at Digestive Disease Week® (DDW) 2021. The new technology could assist in managing chronic gastrointestinal issues such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

“Typically, gastroenterologists have to rely on patient self-reported information about their stool to help determine the cause of their gastrointestinal health issues, which can be very unreliable,” said Deborah Fisher, MD, one of the lead authors on the study and associate professor of medicine at Duke University Durham, North Carolina. “Patients often can’t remember what their stool looks like or how often they have a bowel movement, which is part of the standard monitoring process. The Smart Toilet technology will allow us to gather the long-term information needed to make a more accurate and timely diagnosis of chronic gastrointestinal problems.”

The technology can be retrofitted within the pipes of an existing toilet. Once a person has a bowel movement and flushes, the toilet will take an image of the stool within the pipes. The data collected over time will provide a gastroenterologist a better understanding of a patient’s stool form (i.e., loose, normal, or constipated) and the presence of blood, allowing them to diagnose the patient and provide the right treatment for their condition.

To develop the artificial intelligence image analysis tool for the Smart Toilet, researchers analyzed 3,328 unique stool images found online or provided by research participants. All images were reviewed and annotated by gastroenterologists according to the Bristol Stool Scale, a common clinical tool for classifying stool. Using a computationally efficient approach to convolutional neural networks, which is a type of deep learning algorithm that can analyze images, researchers found that the algorithm accurately classified the stool form 85.1 percent of the time; gross blood detection had an accuracy of 76.3 percent.

“We are optimistic about patient willingness to use this technology because it’s something that can be installed in their toilet’s pipes and doesn’t require the patient to do anything other than flush,” said Sonia Grego, PhD, a lead researcher on the study and founding director of the Duke Smart Toilet Lab. “An IBD flare-up could be diagnosed using the Smart Toilet and the patient’s response to treatment could be monitored with the technology. This could be especially useful for patients who live in long-term care facilities who may not be able to report their conditions and could help improve initial diagnosis of acute conditions.”

The prototype has promising feasibility, but it is not yet available to the public. Researchers are developing additional features of the technology to include stool specimen sampling for biochemical marker analysis that will provide highly specific disease data to meet patients’ and gastroenterologists’ needs.

Building a startup is like falling in love. You find the “perfect one.” You lose all sense of reason. Judgment flies out the door. You’re head over heels.

And you’re likely to make mistakes.

The problem with the startup culture is this irrational blindness, and it leaves a trail of wrecked startups. Everyone knows that building a startup is tough, but many entrepreneurs aren’t analyzing their own startups with enough objectivity.

If you don’t want to waste your money (or your life) on a failed startup idea, then here is a list of questions to ask.

Can I kill this if I try?

The very first thing you want to do to your startup is try and kill it. I’m serious. If your startup is going to fail, like 90% of startups do, then you want it to end earlier rather than later.

When you emerge into the market, your competitors will be trying to kill you anyway. Do unto your startup what your competitors will do unto you. If you are battle tested before the battle begins, then you are in strong shape for survival.

Try and kill the startup. Will it die? If the answer is “no,” then put your heart into it, and do it.

Funding

    Do you have enough financial backing to design, build, test, and market? How far will your money take you? Take a longview with your funding strategy. Your capital should include a sufficient amount to take you to a comfortable point in the possibly distant future — beyond the marketing phase.

Product

  • Is there something that distinguishes my product/service? Why does the world need your product? If it’s not somehow different or better than the next widget, no one is going to look at it.
  • Do I have an innovative product/service? When smart investors look for their next funding project, their eye is trained to identify first movers — products that sparkle with innovation. These are the kinds of products or services that explode into industries with unshakeable power. Innovation may be a buzzword, but it’s still important.
  • Are there any products/services that are better? If you are entering an arena with highly developed and/or superior products or service, tread carefully. New kids on the block have to be cooler, faster, or better-looking in order to succeed. If you don’t have some trick up your sleeve that will allow you to outshine the competitors, you’re sunk.
  • Does this product/service solve a real problem? Successful products and services solve real problems. Billions of dollars of investment funds have gone into the alternative energy industry, precisely because we have a big problem staring us in the face. Look for problems to solve, not just appetites to satisfy.

Market

  • Are there strong barriers to entry? The barriers to entry are any obstacles that make it hard for a startup to enter the market. Startup entrepreneurs know that the going will be tough. It’s important to consider how easy it is for others to replicate your product, mimic your idea, or steal your intellectual property. The worst thing that can happen is to pour your life energy into an idea only to have it stolen, copied, and sold — whisking market share right from underneath your feet. Choose a niche in which the barriers to entry will form a strong defense against future competition.
  • Do I have a marketing plan or idea? Not only do you have to possess a killer product, but you also need to have a killer plan for marketing your product. Your product is not ready for the market, unless your have a marketing plan that is guaranteed to turn heads.
  • Is the market ready? Some markets — take outerspace travel for instance — may not be ripe for entry. If you find a market, do some testing in order to understand its receptivity to the product or service.
  • Is the cost of customer acquisition low or competitive within the market? One overlooked cost among startups is the cost of customer acquisition. When you look at your market, be sure to factor in this amount. Too many startups have failed because they haven’t accounted for this jaw-dropping cost.
  • Does the market have money? The answer to this question depends on your demographic. It’s a foolish risk to enter a market for people who lack the money to pay you for it.

Business Model

  • Do I have a real, scalable business model? The heart of a business it its business model, and that business model must be scalable. With rare exceptions like Twitter, investors want to fund a business model, not just a cool idea. You need something that has a real revenue plan. To really ensure its success, have a scaling plan as well.
  • Is the team compensated for the foreseeable future? Compensation is one of those sticky areas in a startup that can lead you into trouble. Most employees will not continue simply based on passion, drive, and excitement. The honeymoon ends, and the hard work begins. Are your employees compensated for it? Future sellouts or stock value doesn’t have much appeal when your nose is to the grindstone, your stress level is high, and you don’t see any rewards for your labor. Employees must be compensated competitively if you want to keep them from walking out.
  • Is the talent affordable and available? The best startups are those that require very little human capital. Why? Because human capital is expensive and unreliable. Systems and processes can help to eliminate reliance on talent and personnel. You’ll have to hire some people; make sure that their talents exist in the marketplace — and that you can afford them.
  • Does the team work well together? When you have a killer team, you know it. There’s a chemistry. Ideas fly, minds buzz, excitement grows, and stuff gets done. If you have a team culture that is characterized by bickering, jealousy, internal competition, and backstabbing, the startup will kill itself.

Conclusion

The more work you do at the beginning of the startup phase, the more heartache and grief you’ll save in the long run. It seems oddly sadistic to try to kill your own startup — an idea that you’ve incubated and cherished for so long. Even though you’re biased in its favor, try to take a step back. Give it the cold and calculating stare, moving through each of these questions.

If it survives the gauntlet, then you’ve got a secure idea on your hands. Go get it.

What are some of the questions that you consider as you analyze a startup idea?

  • Updated 27/03/2021
  • Posted by Pawmeal Team

How to analyze poop

The ideal dog poop 💩 should also not stink too much. The amount of dog poop and the stinkiness are both indicators of how much your dog is absorbing the food. The least amount of dog poop and less smelly it is, the better.

Ever since we have Rara, we have been talking to her like she understands us. (We think Rara understands us!) But how do we understand Rara – in particular, Rara’s inner body conditions and how she feels? Knowing the meanings of her poop change may help!

We do wish Rara can speak hooman language, and unfortunately her language to us are limited to barking and whining. 😄 But there is another way for Rara to communicate with us – we call it Dog Poop Language. (haha 😂).

Let’s Look at the “Four Cs” in Dog Poop

Not too long ago, we hoomans were saying that 4Cs (condominium, cars, cash and credit card) were the material “targets” in life 😅😂. Well, dogs also have 4Cs – in their poop! Understanding dog poop meaning actually requires a systematic approach in what experts call a “Four C” method. It was so surprising to us when we first learn this ourselves! And now when we stare at our furkid’s poop, passers-by stare at us. Oh, and the 4Cs stand for consistency, coating, contents and colour.

How to analyze poop

Pawmeal – 4Cs in Dog Poop

1. Consistency

There’s a ranking system that many vets use from a scale of 1 to 7. A consistency of 1 refers to poo that are super hard and comes out as pellets. A consistency of 7 is just simply a puddle of watery poo aka dog diarrhoea or lao sai. As dog parents we all want our dog’s poo to hit a scale of 2 , where the poo looks like Play-Doh, has shapes like “caterpillars” and does not leave much residue on the ground when we pick it up. Let’s see the dog poop consistency scale visually below:

How to analyze poop

Pawmeal Dog Poop Scale

2. Coating

There should not be any coatings at all in poops. If there are any coatings like mucus or blood stains around your dog’s poop, it is a warning signal. If it persists for more than 2 bowel movements, you need to consider bringing your dog to the vet.

3. Contents

This one is a bit tricky as we are totally not expecting anyone to touch, roll and squeeze the poop. 😅 But if you can spot any unusual substance within your dog’s poop with your naked eye, it’s time to be alert. Some of the substances that look different from the usual poop are thin, white strands (may be worms) or grass (tummy upset).

4. Colour

Dog poops can come in a variety of colours! Every colour can signal something different in your pet’s body. If you are able to read poop colours, you may be able to understand why something goes wrong in your dog’s body.

The best quality dog poop colour is chocolate brown to darker brown. And all other colours most likely mean there is some deficiency in the body. For example, if your dog’s poop is light grey or ash colour, it probably means that there are too much calcium in your dog’s diet – your dog may have eaten too much bones. If the poo is very dark or black, a common reason may be because there are too much offals (organs like liver, heart, kidneys) in your dog’s food. A more serious case can be an indication of hemorrhage or internal bleeding, which will require a vet visit.

The Ideal Dog Poop

What should be the ideal dog poop? The “perfect” poop should contain these characteristics:

Consistency – Caterpiller-shaped, firm but not too hard (Some say “log-shaped”).

Coating – No coating at all around the poop.

Contents – Should not have anything out of the ordinary within the poop.

Colour – Chocolate brown to darker brown.

The ideal dog poop should also not stink too much. The amount of dog poop and the amount of stink are both indicators of how much your dog is absorbing the food. The least amount of dog poop and less smelly it is, the better. 😊❤💩

How About Cat Poop?

The understanding of cat poops are largely similar to dog poops. Of course, that cats expel much smaller stools and there are some problems that may be more pertinent to cats. A good example will be finding streaks of fur on the poop itself, as cats love to groom themselves (and way more often than dogs do!)

The 4Cs of poop knowledge otherwise applies to cats too. 😊

What About Other Common Dog Poop Issues like loose stool, mucus in stool or diarrhoea in dogs?

We have another separate article on common dog poop problems. We also share more about these poop meanings. Read more here 😃

And Here’s an dog chart (infographic) on.. Poop.

Here’s a visual dog poop chart showing a quick summary of the basic dog poop meanings that you can share with your fellow furry friend owners! Do share around and let us know if you have any poop questions! 😄

You can also read more about the background on how most pet owners come to feed processed kibbles today here.

How to analyze poop

Pawmeal – How To Understand Dog Poop

About Pawmeal Team

We love our pets (Skippy and Rara) and want to share our experiences and stories with you. Together, we took a pet nutrition specialist course to understand our pets’ diets better. We also make fresh, gently cooked food that can let your pet become healthier, happier and live longer. Our cooked food helps keep picky dogs excited and interested longer than other foods. View all posts by Pawmeal Team →

How to analyze poop

The Comprehensive Stool Analysis detects the presence of pathogenic microorganisms such as yeast, parasites, and bacteria that contribute to chronic illness and neurological dysfunction — now with 14 new pathogen markers! It provides helpful information about prescription and natural products effective against specific strains detected in the sample. The test also evaluates beneficial bacteria levels, intestinal immune function, overall intestinal health, and inflammation markers.

Many chronic disorders come from digestive problems and inadequate nutrient absorption. Proper gastrointestinal function is needed to eliminate toxic substances, pathogenic microbes, and undigested food particles from the body to prevent health problems. Nutrients require a specific internal environment to be properly digested and transported throughout the body.

Abnormal intestinal microorganisms in the GI tract are widely known to cause disease. Research shows a relationship between the GI tract and the neurological, hepatic, and immune systems. For example, excessive yeast produces toxic substances that can pass through the blood-brain barrier and alter neurological functioning causing “brain fog,” behavior problems, and learning difficulties.

THE COMPREHENSIVE STOOL ANALYSIS INCLUDES:

Parameters for digestion & absorption

Cultures for bacteria and yeast

Stool metabolic markers

THE BENEFITS OF COMPREHENSIVE STOOL ANALYSIS:

The amount of beneficial bacteria in the GI tract is determined

The digestive parameters aid in the diagnosis of intestinal dysfunction without invasive procedures

Inflammation and immune markers will aid in appropriate treatments

Many different pathogens have the potential to be isolated and identified

SPECIMEN REQUIREMENTS:

Stool: Sample must be collected on two separate days (at least 12 hours apart). The specimen must be received within 7 days of the first collection. The patient must discontinue digestive enzymes, antacids, iron supplements, vitamin C over 250 mg, aspirin, anti-inflammatories, and large amounts of meat 48 hours prior to the collection of the specimen.

CPT CODES:

* No Medicare Coverage

TESTIMONIALS

THIS TEST IS ALSO KNOWN AS:

ANÁLISIS EXHAUSTIVO HECES

تحليل البراز شامل

ANALYSE COMPLÈTE DES SELLES

UN’ANALISI COMPLETA FECI

KOMPLEKSOWA ANALIZA KAŁU

ANÁLISE DE FEZES ABRANGENTE

KAPSAMLI DIŞKI ANALIZI

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By analyzing your fecal matter, the smart commode can determine your health and offer recommendations to improve it via a mobile app.

How to analyze poop

Toto’s new smart toilet will examine your stool to determine if you’re healthy or not.

The concept product, dubbed the Wellness Toilet, could hit the consumer market in the next few years. “Toto’s new toilet scans your body and key outputs, providing wellness recommendations as a result of the simple routine act of sitting down on the toilet,” the company says.

How to analyze poop(Credit: Toto)

The approach is certainly unconventional. But it does have a key advantage over other health and fitness tech: You don’t have to wear anything or change your daily routine in any way. Instead, all the health tracking occurs whenever you take a regular bathroom break.

“Toilets and people have two unique touchpoints that cannot be found elsewhere—the skin and human waste,” the company says. “The Wellness Toilet is in direct contact with individuals’ skin when they are sitting on it, and it analyzes the waste they deposit—a wealth of wellness data can be collected from fecal matter.”

Toto isn’t the first to come up with the idea. Last year, scientists at Stanford University published a paper on a disease-detecting smart toilet that also examined fecal matter and urine to determine the user’s health. (In addition, the same toilet had butthole recognition to help it differentiate between users.)

Toto didn’t go into details on the technology that’ll power the toilet. But presumably the seat will be outfitted with an array of sensors, which can then send the data back to the company’s data centers for analysis. The company says it’ll then supply health recommendations to the user via a mobile app, including changes they can make to their diet.

How to analyze poop

New York, May 22 (IANS) Researchers are developing a new artificial intelligence (AI) tool that can be added to the standard toilet to help analyse patients’ stool and give gastroenterologists the information they need to provide appropriate treatment.

The new technology could assist in managing chronic gastrointestinal issues such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), indicates the study selected for presentation at Digestive Disease Week (DDW) 2021.

“Patients often can’t remember what their stool looks like or how often they have a bowel movement, which is part of the standard monitoring process,” said researcher Deborah Fisher from Duke University in the US.

“The Smart Toilet technology will allow us to gather the long-term information needed to make a more accurate and timely diagnosis of chronic gastrointestinal problems,” Fisher added.

The technology can be retrofitted within the pipes of an existing toilet. Once a person has a bowel movement and flushes, the toilet will take an image of the stool within the pipes.

The data collected over time will provide a gastroenterologist a better understanding of a patient’s stool form (i.e., loose, normal or constipated) and the presence of blood, allowing them to diagnose the patient and provide the right treatment for their condition.

To develop the artificial intelligence image analysis tool for the Smart Toilet, researchers analysed 3,328 unique stool images found online or provided by research participants.

All images were reviewed and annotated by gastroenterologists according to the Bristol Stool Scale, a common clinical tool for classifying stool.

Using a computationally efficient approach to convolutional neural networks, which is a type of deep learning algorithm that can analyse images, researchers found that the algorithm accurately classified the stool from 85.1 per cent of the time; gross blood detection had an accuracy of 76.3 per cent.

Scientists could have a revolutionary new way of measuring how much of the potent greenhouse gas methane is produced by cows and other ruminants, thanks to a surprising discovery in their poo.

Researchers from the University of Bristol and the Teagasc Animal and Grassland Research Centre in Ireland, have found a link between methane production and levels of a compound called archaeol in the feces of several fore-gut fermenting animals including cows, sheep and deer.

The compound could potentially be developed as a biomarker to estimate the methane production from domestic and wild animals, allowing scientists to more accurately assess the contribution that ruminants make to global greenhouse gas emissions.

Co-author Dr Fiona Gill, who conducted the work as a postdoctoral researcher at Bristol and is now at the University of Leeds, said: “When it comes to calculating carbon budgets there is currently a lot of uncertainty surrounding animal methane contributions, particularly from wild ruminants.

“We’re quite good at measuring man-made CO2 emissions, but techniques to measure the animal production of methane — a much more potent greenhouse gas — have serious limitations.

“If we can identify a simple biomarker for methane production in animal stools, then we can use this along with information on diet and animal population numbers to estimate their total contribution to global methane levels.”

Cows, sheep and other ruminants are thought to be responsible for around one-fifth of global methane production but the precise amount has proved difficult to quantify. Methane production from animals is often measured using respiration chambers, which can be laborious and are unsuitable for grazing animals.

Archaeol is thought to come from organisms called archaea, which are symbiotic or ‘friendly’ microbes that live in the foregut of ruminant animals. These microbes produce methane as a by-product of their metabolism and this is then released by the animal as burping and flatulence.

Principal investigator, Dr Ian Bull of Bristol’s School of Chemistry said: “We initially detected archaeol in the feces of several foregut fermenters including camels, cows, giraffes, sheep and llamas. We then expanded the study to evaluate the quantities of this compound in the feces of cows with different diets.

“Two groups of cows were fed on different diets and then their methane production and fecal archaeol concentration were measured. The animals that were allowed to graze on as much silage as they wanted emitted significantly more methane and produced feces with higher concentrations of archaeol than those given a fixed amount of silage, supplemented by concentrate feed.

“This confirms that manipulating the diet of domestic livestock could also be an important way of controlling methane gas emissions.”

The work was carried out at the University of Bristol and the Teagasc Animal and Grassland Research Centre in Ireland. The research was funded by the Leverhulme Trust.

The research is published in the journal Animal Feed Science and Technology.

How to analyze poop

Researchers are developing a new artificial intelligence (AI) tool that can be added to the standard toilet to help analyse patients’ stool and give gastroenterologists the information they need to provide appropriate treatment.

The new technology could assist in managing chronic gastrointestinal issues such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), indicates the study selected for presentation at Digestive Disease Week (DDW) 2021.

“Patients often can’t remember what their stool looks like or how often they have a bowel movement, which is part of the standard monitoring process,” said researcher Deborah Fisher from Duke University in the US.

“The Smart Toilet technology will allow us to gather the long-term information needed to make a more accurate and timely diagnosis of chronic gastrointestinal problems,” Fisher added.

The technology can be retrofitted within the pipes of an existing toilet. Once a person has a bowel movement and flushes, the toilet will take an image of the stool within the pipes.

The data collected over time will provide a gastroenterologist a better understanding of a patient’s stool form (i.e., loose, normal or constipated) and the presence of blood, allowing them to diagnose the patient and provide the right treatment for their condition.

To develop the artificial intelligence image analysis tool for the Smart Toilet, researchers analysed 3,328 unique stool images found online or provided by research participants.

All images were reviewed and annotated by gastroenterologists according to the Bristol Stool Scale, a common clinical tool for classifying stool.

Using a computationally efficient approach to convolutional neural networks, which is a type of deep learning algorithm that can analyse images, researchers found that the algorithm accurately classified the stool from 85.1 per cent of the time; gross blood detection had an accuracy of 76.3 per cent.

By analyzing your fecal matter, the smart commode can determine your health and offer recommendations to improve it via a mobile app.

How to analyze poop

Toto’s new smart toilet will examine your stool to determine if you’re healthy or not.

The concept product, dubbed the Wellness Toilet, could hit the consumer market in the next few years. “Toto’s new toilet scans your body and key outputs, providing wellness recommendations as a result of the simple routine act of sitting down on the toilet,” the company says.

How to analyze poop(Credit: Toto)

The approach is certainly unconventional. But it does have a key advantage over other health and fitness tech: You don’t have to wear anything or change your daily routine in any way. Instead, all the health tracking occurs whenever you take a regular bathroom break.

“Toilets and people have two unique touchpoints that cannot be found elsewhere—the skin and human waste,” the company says. “The Wellness Toilet is in direct contact with individuals’ skin when they are sitting on it, and it analyzes the waste they deposit—a wealth of wellness data can be collected from fecal matter.”

Toto isn’t the first to come up with the idea. Last year, scientists at Stanford University published a paper on a disease-detecting smart toilet that also examined fecal matter and urine to determine the user’s health. (In addition, the same toilet had butthole recognition to help it differentiate between users.)

Toto didn’t go into details on the technology that’ll power the toilet. But presumably the seat will be outfitted with an array of sensors, which can then send the data back to the company’s data centers for analysis. The company says it’ll then supply health recommendations to the user via a mobile app, including changes they can make to their diet.

Waste composition analysis is a process of physically separating, weighing and categorizing waste. It can be used both to determine total amounts of FLW and to categorize the different types of foods that have been discarded (e.g., fruits, vegetables, meat) or distinguish between food and inedible parts.

A summary of the strengths and limitations of waste composition analyses is shown in Tables A16 and A17.

Table A16. Factors to Consider when Using a Food-Focused Waste Composition Analysis to Quantify FLW

  • Can provide relatively accurate data on the total amount of FLW within given waste streams
  • Can also provide detailed information on types of food wasted, whether it is packaged, whether it was a whole or part of an item, etc.
  • Detailed information can be used to estimate cost, environmental impacts and nutritional content of FLW
  • Can link information to households in the study, allow demographic analysis, and correlation studies with stated behaviors, attitudes, etc.
  • Cannot be applied to all destinations (e.g., FLW in sewer waste)
  • Detailed studies are likely to be expensive because they require relatively large sample sizes
  • Does not provide much information on why food items were wasted
  • Can be affected by moisture losses in hot conditions

Table A17. Factors to Consider when Using a Waste Composition Analysis on all Materials in a Waste Stream

  • Can provide relatively accurate data on the total amount of FLW within given waste streams
  • Can be relatively inexpensive where studies/programs already exist
  • Can be replicated to monitor progress
  • Cannot be applied to all destinations (e.g., FLW in sewer waste)
  • Does not include detailed information on types of food required to estimate accurate cost or impacts of FLW
  • Does not provide much information on why food items were wasted
  • Can be affected by moisture losses in hot conditions

How to Conduct a Waste Composition Analysis to Measure FLW

Step 1: Identify the sectors to be reviewed

If a waste composition analysis is to be performed across several sectors, start by making a list of the sectors of interest. If the waste composition analysis is taking place within a single household, business or facility, this step can be skipped.

Step 2: Recruit and inform participants

Participants in a waste composition analysis can be identified from publicly available information, such as databases of businesses or through trade organizations (NRDC 2017a). The participants should be fully briefed about when the analysis will be performed and who will be conducting the analysis. It may be difficult to recruit participants due to confidentiality concerns, so an incentive may be useful to encourage participation.

Step 3: Obtain samples of FLW and identify a sorting site

Collect waste samples from the FLW-generating units on their regular trash collection days to ensure that the analysis is conducted on a representative sample. If possible, take the waste sample to a separate site to be sorted, since most FLW-generating units will not have the space available to sort through large amounts of waste.[1]

Step 4: Prepare the FLW for measurement

Prepare the waste samples for measurement with the following steps (WRAP 2012).

  1. Place the waste from each FLW-generating unit in a discrete area (e.g., a table or a marked-off section of floor) where it will not mix with other samples.
  2. Remove the food from any packages and sort the packages into a separate pile.
  3. Sort the FLW into categories based on the scope of the study.
  4. If it is of interest to the study, sort the non-FLW material into categories, such as paper, plastic, metals, etc.

Step 5: Weigh and record the data

Weigh each category of FLW separately. Record the weight data in a prepared spreadsheet based on the food categories identified for the study.

Step 6: Dispose of the waste samples

Once the samples have been sorted, weighed and recorded, they can be disposed of. If the scale of the study is large, it may be necessary to contract a waste management company for a special waste retrieval.

Step 7: Analyze the data

Once the data from the waste composition analysis has been obtained for a single day from an FLW-generating unit, it can be extrapolated to an entire year by multiplying the data by the number of days the unit operates annually

Common Data Challenges when Conducting a Waste Composition Analysis

Reluctance to participate. FLW-generating units may not see the benefit of a composition analysis of their waste stream and may even be actively opposed to participating due to confidentiality concerns. Confidentiality concerns can be addressed through signed confidentiality agreements and by working with local officials who can assure potential participants of the legitimacy of the study. Providing an incentive for taking part in the analysis may also boost participation rates.

Sample collection errors. If the waste management company of the FLW-generating unit is not aware of the study being undertaken, the samples may be inadvertently collected as part of routine disposal before they can be analyzed. This can be avoided by reminding the waste management company of the study and by collecting the sample at least an hour before the usual waste pickup occurs.

Unrepresentative data. The results of a single waste composition analysis might not be representative of an FLW-generating unit’s “typical” output. For example, if a household held a family gathering the night before the waste analysis, the analysis would show much higher levels of FLW than usual. Atypical results can be identified by performing multiple analyses of the same unit on different days. If another analysis is not feasible, comparing the results against other similar units and discarding any outliers that seem overly high or low can minimize unrepresentative data.

Lack of information on causes. Although a waste composition analysis provides highly granular numerical data on FLW, it provides little to no information on the causes of FLW. It may therefore be useful to simultaneously conduct a separate study using diaries or surveys to gather qualitative information on the causes of the FLW.

Additional Resources for Using Waste Composition Analysis

Natural Resources Defense Council. 2017. Estimating quantities and types of food waste at the city level. .

Natural Resources Defense Council. 2017. Estimating quantities and types of food waste at the city level: Technical appendices. .

Zero Waste Scotland. 2015. “Guidance on the methodology for waste composition analysis.” https://www.zerowastescotland.org.uk/sites/default/files/WCAMethodology_Jun15.pdf

[1] For a detailed discussion of how to select a site for sorting FLW, see pages 32–33 of Chapter 4 “Waste Composition Analysis” in Guidance on FLW Quantification Methods by FLW Protocol.

How to analyze poop

Researchers are developing a new artificial intelligence (AI) tool that can be added to the standard toilet to help analyse patients’ stool and give gastroenterologists the information they need to provide appropriate treatment.

The new technology could assist in managing chronic gastrointestinal issues such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), indicates the study selected for presentation at Digestive Disease Week (DDW) 2021.

“Patients often can’t remember what their stool looks like or how often they have a bowel movement, which is part of the standard monitoring process,” said researcher Deborah Fisher from Duke University in the US.

“The Smart Toilet technology will allow us to gather the long-term information needed to make a more accurate and timely diagnosis of chronic gastrointestinal problems,” Fisher added.

The technology can be retrofitted within the pipes of an existing toilet. Once a person has a bowel movement and flushes, the toilet will take an image of the stool within the pipes.

The data collected over time will provide a gastroenterologist a better understanding of a patient’s stool form (i.e., loose, normal or constipated) and the presence of blood, allowing them to diagnose the patient and provide the right treatment for their condition.

To develop the artificial intelligence image analysis tool for the Smart Toilet, researchers analysed 3,328 unique stool images found online or provided by research participants.

All images were reviewed and annotated by gastroenterologists according to the Bristol Stool Scale, a common clinical tool for classifying stool.

Using a computationally efficient approach to convolutional neural networks, which is a type of deep learning algorithm that can analyse images, researchers found that the algorithm accurately classified the stool from 85.1 per cent of the time; gross blood detection had an accuracy of 76.3 per cent.

Sometimes you read about all the new gadgets at CES and have FOMO because you’re not there, and other times you read about an AI cat litter box.

LuluPet says that it has the world’s first litter box with “built-in stool and urine image recognition” to analyze cats’. deposits. The goal of the Taiwan-based company’s gadget is to help monitor a cat’s health, “to help your cat to live a healthier life.” If you have multiple cats, LuluPet’s device can determine which poop is from which cat because you don’t want Mittens taking credit for Fluffy’s work.

Here’s how it works: the cat walks into the semi-enclosed litter box, and then the data is sent back to the app for the owner to monitor. The smart litter box is Alexa- and Google Home-enabled (though what’s the prompt there: “Alexa, did Fluffy just drop a dookie?”). It can weigh your cat in order to, as LuluPet founder James Wu says in this video, determine if the cat is too fat or needs more food or water.

LuluPet’s is not the first smart cat litter box, and not even the only one at this year’s CES. But while the majority of smart litter boxes focus on automatic cleanup of the cat’s deposits and the resulting odor, LuluPet’s device is aimed at helping improve the cat’s overall health. It has a built-in camera (apparently you can watch live via its connected smartphone app), as well as infrared and weight sensors to determine whether the cat did number one or number two. The images from the event are compared with images of other cats’ excrement in LuluPet’s database to make sure all is normal. Yes, I just wrote that sentence.

The overall goal of LuluPet’s smart litter box is a good one. Cats aren’t always the most forthcoming creatures when they’re not feeling well, and often by the time they show symptoms, they may be in the advanced stages of an illness. Mind you, all the felines I’ve ever known would take one look at the camera and destroy it or spray it — or find somewhere else to conduct their business (like your bed or your shoes). But LuluPet’s database that compares and analyzes your pet’s health reminds me a bit of a WebMD for pets; that is, a site that gives way too much health information to people not really trained to make a proper diagnosis.

We reached out to LuluPet for more details on the device and will report back if we get more info. The smart litter box reportedly will go on sale on Amazon for $149 in March.

If you’ve been having stomach problems, your doctor might order a stool culture or ask for a stool sample. This test can look in your poop for bacteria, a virus, or other germs that might be making you sick.

Why Do You Need It?

Your doctor could order this test if you show any of these symptoms:

    that lasts more than a few days
  • Poop that contains blood or mucus or cramping
  • Throwing up

Your doctor may be more concerned if:

  • You’re very young or elderly
  • You have a weakened immune system
  • You’ve traveled outside the United States
  • You’ve eaten contaminated food or water
  • Your symptoms are severe

You may need antibiotics to get rid of the infection or prevent other health problems, like dehydration (losing too much fluid).

How Is a Stool Culture Done?

You’ll need to give your doctor a sample of your poop. You won’t need to do this at the doctor’s office. Instead, you’ll be given a special container with a lid to take home. This may have your name and birthdate on it. If not, you can write it on the label.

Your doctor will go over how to collect the sample and any special instructions. In most cases, you’ll follow these steps:

Place something in your toilet to catch your poop. Your doctor may give you a small container or you could use a clean, empty plastic one that you have. If your stool isn’t loose or watery, you could also spread newspaper or plastic wrap over the toilet rim.

Make sure your poop doesn’t touch the inside of your toilet. It could pick up germs that aren’t yours.

Place the sample into the container. Don’t use your hands. Your doctor should give you a small spoon or spatula you can throw away after you use it.

Don’t overfill the container. For the test, you’ll only need to provide a sample that’s about the size of a walnut. Make sure to include any pieces that are bloody, slimy, or watery.

Avoid getting urine mixed up with your stool. If you need to pee, do so before starting.

Put the container in a sealed plastic bag and wash your hands well with soap and water. Flush any leftover poop down your toilet.

Return the sample to your doctor’s office as soon as you can. It can be kept in your refrigerator until then, but for no more than 24 hours.

Tell your doctor about any medicines you’re taking, since these can affect your test results. They should also know if you’re taking any herbs, supplements, vitamins, over-the-counter, or illegal drugs.

When Do You Get the Results?

Once your sample gets to the lab, it will be smeared inside a special sterile plate that helps bacteria to grow. Any that does is looked at more closely under a microscope.

Most of the time, you should get results back within 1 or 2 days.

What Do the Results Mean?

If your test results are negative, that means that they’re normal. No germs were found in your poop and you don’t have an infection.

A positive test result means that your poop was infected with a germ, virus, or other type of bacteria. The lab will tell your doctor which type it is and which medicines will fight against it. That can help them decide how to treat it.

Show Sources

University of Rochester Medical Center: “Stool Culture.”

NHS Choices: “How should I collect and store a stool (faeces) sample?”

Labtestsonline.org/American Association for Clinical Chemistry: “Stool Culture.”

Kids Health from Nemours: “Stool Test: Bacteria Culture.”
Health Protection Scotland: “How to collect a faecal specimen at home.”

The Smart Toilet tech will allow us to gather info needed to diagnose chronic gastrointestinal problems.

Researchers are developing a new artificial intelligence (AI) tool that can be added to the standard toilet to help analyse patients’ stool and give gastroenterologists the information they need to provide appropriate treatment.

The new technology could assist in managing chronic gastrointestinal issues such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), indicates the study selected for presentation at Digestive Disease Week (DDW) 2021.

“Patients often can’t remember what their stool looks like or how often they have a bowel movement, which is part of the standard monitoring process,” said researcher Deborah Fisher from Duke University in the US.

“The Smart Toilet technology will allow us to gather the long-term information needed to make a more accurate and timely diagnosis of chronic gastrointestinal problems,” Fisher added.

The technology can be retrofitted within the pipes of an existing toilet. Once a person has a bowel movement and flushes, the toilet will take an image of the stool within the pipes.

The data collected over time will provide a gastroenterologist a better understanding of a patient’s stool form (i.e., loose, normal or constipated) and the presence of blood, allowing them to diagnose the patient and provide the right treatment for their condition.

To develop the artificial intelligence image analysis tool for the Smart Toilet, researchers analysed 3,328 unique stool images found online or provided by research participants.

All images were reviewed and annotated by gastroenterologists according to the Bristol Stool Scale, a common clinical tool for classifying stool.

Using a computationally efficient approach to convolutional neural networks, which is a type of deep learning algorithm that can analyse images, researchers found that the algorithm accurately classified the stool from 85.1 per cent of the time; gross blood detection had an accuracy of 76.3 per cent.

A correctly calibrated microscope is crucial because size is an important characteristic for identification of parasites. This section assumes that an ocular micrometer disk has been installed in one of the oculars and that a stage micrometer is available for calibrating the ocular micrometer. This calibration should be done for each of the microscope’s objectives.

Place the stage micrometer on the microscope stage and focus on the micrometer scale, until you can distinguish between the large (0.1 mm) and the small (0.01 mm) divisions of the scale. Adjust the stage micrometer so that the “0” line on the ocular micrometer is superimposed with the “0” line on the stage micrometer. Without changing the stage adjustment, find a point as distant as possible from the two superimposed “0” lines where two other lines are also exactly superimposed. Determine the number of ocular micrometer spaces, as well as the number of millimeters on the stage micrometer, between the two points of superimposition.

For example: Suppose 48 ocular micrometer spaces (units) equal 0.6 mm. Calculate the number of mm/ocular micrometer space.

0.6 mm x 48 ocular micrometer spaces = 0.0125 mm/ocular micrometer space

Since most measurements of microorganisms are given in µm rather than mm, the value calculated above must be converted to µm by multiplying it by 1000 µm/mm.

0.125 mm ocular space × 1000 µm/mm = 12.5 µm/ocular micrometer space

Thus in this case, 1 ocular micrometer space (unit) is the equivalent of 12.5 µm.

Follow the above steps for each objective. Calibration readings should be posted on each microscope and the microscope should be recalibrated after every cleaning or changing of objectives or oculars.

Wet Mount Preparation:

How to analyze poop

Before preparing a wet mount slide, the microscope should be calibrated. The objectives and oculars used for the calibration procedure should be used for all measurements on the microscope. The calibration factors should always be posted on the side of the microscope.

Protozoan trophozoites, cysts, oocysts, and helminth eggs and larvae may be seen and identified using a wet mount identification technique. To prepare a wet mount, obtain a microscope slide and the stool specimen. Take a small amount of the specimen and place it on a microscope slide. If the stool specimen is still somewhat solid, add a drop or two of saline to the specimen and mix. Ideally, two smears can be prepared on one slide, of which one can be stained with iodine. Thickness of the wet mount should be as Figure A on the right illustrates.

If desired the coverslip(s) can be sealed. A preparation of petroleum jelly and paraffin in a 1:1 ratio can be applied with a cotton tip swab as illustrated in Figure B on the right. It must be heated to approximately 70°C to both mix and use. Sealing the coverslip keeps organisms from moving when using oil immersion objectives and prevents the preparation from drying out. To seal, secure the four corners by placing a drop of hot sealant to anchor the coverslip. Spread a thin layer around the edges. Other suitable sealing preparations can be used if desired.

Systematically scan the entire coverslip area using the 10× objective as illustrated in Figure C on the right. If something suspicious is seen, a higher magnification may be necessary.

CAUTION: Bringing high power objectives too near the edge of the slide will result in the sealant smearing the objective and interfering with the optors.

Stained Slide Preparation:

Permanent stained slides are used for identification of protozoan trophozoites and cysts and for confirmation of species. It also permits consultation reference and diagnosis when needed as well as providing a permanent record of organism(s) observed. The microscope should be calibrated before examination begins. Positive microscope slides as well as reference material (plates, photographs, digital images) should be available by the workstation to compare morphological details and organisms. Refer to the staining section of stools for additional information regarding which stains to use.

Normally 3 × 1 slides are used to prepare permanent stained slides. If the specimen is unpreserved, prepare a thin even smear of the material by streaking the material back and forth on the slide with an applicator stick. If necessary dilute feces with saline. For PVA fixed specimens, apply two or three drops of the specimen to the slide and with a rolling motion or an up and down dabbing motion spread the specimen evenly to cover an area roughly the size of a 22 by 22 mm coverslip. For other fixatives, check manufacturers instructions.

After the staining process is complete, systematically examine the smear microscopically utilizing the 100× oil objective. Examine at least 200 to 300 oil immersion fields. Report protozoa seen as either trophozoites and/or cysts as applicable.

UV Fluorescence Microscopy Procedure:

The demonstration of Cyclospora oocysts in wet preparations is greatly enhanced by using UV fluorescence microscopy. Despite the age of the specimen or sample, Cyclospora oocysts exhibit intense blue color when observed under a fluorescence microscope (UV excitation filter set at 330-365 nm). If this filter set is not available, a less intense green fluorescence can be obtained with blue excitation (450-490 nm). Under bright-field (differential interference contrast or DIC) microscopy, Cyclospora oocysts appear as refractile spheres (8-10 µm) with a distinct oocyst wall. The utilization of both bright-field (DIC) and fluorescence microscopy provides an efficient and reliable approach to diagnosis. However, it does not provide a permanent stained slide that can be archived.

Table of Contents Why do we need a smart toiletNot just excreta Most of our tech is currently smart or in the process of transitioning to smart. Why should toilets be left behind? Sonia Grego from Duke University wants to do away with the general aversion scientists possess against the […]

Table of Contents

Most of our tech is currently smart or in the process of transitioning to smart. Why should toilets be left behind? Sonia Grego from Duke University wants to do away with the general aversion scientists possess against the study of stool .

The researcher co-founded Coprata and is working on a toilet that uses sensors and artificial intelligence to analyse waste. With this, Grego intends to have a pilot study ready within 9 months.

Why do we need a smart toilet

To be fair, our toilets do need an upgrade. In most parts of the world (not you, Japan) toilets are still based on an archaic design first introduced in the 19th century.

While some toilets do offer bidet-capabilities to wash and provide warm seats, Grego wants to go farther off , as she told The Guardian. Grego wants to create a design that does more than simply flushing our poop. She wants to turn the average toilet into a smart reader of stool and all that goes into the commode .

How to analyze poop

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Also read: This Innovator’s Mobile ‘She Toilets’ Are Providing Women With Much-Needed Respite In Hyderabad

She believes stool samples could provide compelling insight into chronic diseases and even cancer with the right kind of technology. For other poopers who are relatively healthy, such smart toilets could help them maintain a “health baseline”, wherein they know what is normal and what isn’t.

That’s not all! People with inflammatory bowel disease could be catered with tailored treatments – something doctors struggle to do right now because of no monitoring means, a gap this toilet of the future will fill.

Based on your excreta, Grego believes smart toilets could instruct people what changes they need to make. Not eating enough fibre? Your toilet will tell you. For this, she hopes to link all data with an app that gives results.

How to analyze poop

Unsplash

Not just excreta

Another toilet enthusiast – Joshua Coon is developing a smart toilet that does the same things, but by reading urine. Coon, from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, told The Guardian that certain molecules in the urine provide insight into what may be wrong with one’s body.

Also read: South Korean Toilet Turns Your Poop Into Digital Currency

How to analyze poop

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In a small study comprising two people, Coon found that after analysing urine for 10 days he was able to show what medicines a person has taken, how well one’s slept, the amount of fat in one’s diet… and so on!

With these markers, people may be able to maintain their health better than ever.

CLEVELAND, Ohio — Could we see how far the coronavirus has spread by analyzing poop at Ohio sewage plants?

It’s an idea that makes a lot of sense, and we’re discussing it on This Week in the CLE.

Editor Chris Quinn hosts our daily half-hour coronavirus news podcast, with help this week from me. We answer many of the questions you’ve sent through our text message platform.

You’ve been sending Chris lots of thoughts and suggestions on our from-the-newsroom account, in which he shares once or twice a day what we’re thinking about at cleveland.com. You can sign up for free by sending a text to 216-868-4802.

And you’ve been offering all sorts of great perspective in our coronavirus alert account, which has 13,000-plus subscribers. You can sign up for free by texting 216-279-7784.

We start with big numbers: Gov. Mike DeWine said Tuesday the state will cut nearly $800 million in spending over the next two months to offset the loss of tax revenue stemming from the coronavirus crisis. So what does that mean for schools? The cuts include $300 million in cuts to K-12 public-school funding, $210 million in cuts in Medicaid spending and $110 million in college and university funding.

Speaking of schools, Ohio students could return to the classroom in August, going to school two days per week, supplemented with online learning. That’s just one of the possibilities being considered by a task force of superintendents, principals and teachers.

On the other end of the age spectrum, a fourth of those age 80 and older known to have contracted coronavirus in Ohio have died. The numbers are jarring: the share is 15% among the known cases for people in their 70s, 6% in their 60s, 2% in their 50s – dipping off sharply from there.

The Ohio Turnpike is losing millions of dollars in tolls each month because of reduced traffic attributed to the coronavirus crisis. Preliminary numbers for April show a decline of nearly $9 million, nearly 35% from 2019, with 62% fewer passenger cars on the turnpike last month than in April 2019.

In non-coronavirus news, Lake Erie last month broke its April record, rising 9 inches above the April 2019 level, and we’re in for another summer of high water.

Another head-scratcher to add to our coronavirus confusion: could smokers are actually less likely to become seriously infected? There’s a new French study that is raising eyebrows.

And finally, the straight poop. European countries are testing sewage for traces of the coronavirus. Shoud we be doing it here?

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