How to alphabetize a bibliography

How would names with ‘van’, written in the Dutch style – e.g. van Beukering, J., be ordered in a bibliography?

Do we count the ‘van’ element so that e.g. van Beukering, J. would be some point after Campbell, S. – or do ignore the ‘van’ element so that the first letter is and would therefore come before Campbell in a bibliography?

Does this depend on whether the author uses the Dutch ‘van X’ style or the American ‘Van X’? Obviously concatenated forms such as Vancouver, C. would be counted as .

How to alphabetize a bibliography

How to alphabetize a bibliography

3 Answers 3

This depends on the specific style or country. In the Netherlands, surnames are sorted by the “main” part, so van Beukering would come before Campbell. On the other hand, in Belgium it is sorted by the first letter of the surname. There capitalization is also dependent on how the name is registered in the passport. In the Netherlands, one would write “Van Beukering” if the first name is omitted, and “J. van Beukering” if the initials or first name is there.

In short, it may be difficult to tell if you are not a native speaker. It is probably best to just pick one of the alternatives and stick with that.

The authoritative reference for this type of question (for librarians, at least) would be the publication “Names of Persons” by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, which is available for download here:

Here’s what it says about ‘van’:

  • If the person is Dutch, “van Beukering” should be sorted under B
  • If he or she is Belgian, sort it under V (but note the small print that says Belgian libraries aren’t consistent across the country)
  • If they’re from the US, sort it under V

The problem is that following these rules strictly is rather likely to confuse your readers, so I wouldn’t actually recommend using different formats for people of different origin (though you will find this in library catalogues!). Instead, I suggest you pick one style and stick to it, as suggested by the other answers. Nonetheless, I think “Names of Persons” is worth consulting if you encounter name formats you’re unfamiliar with.

The definition of a bibliography is a list of sources you used when writing a scholarly article or paper or a list of books or articles an author has published on a specific subject. An example of a bibliography is the list of sources you include at the end of your thesis paper.

What are the rules for a bibliography?

There are some basic bibliography rules you’ll follow across the board.

  • Start on a separate page. This will be after your endnotes, if applicable.
  • Center the title at the top of the page.
  • Alphabetize the author’s names.
  • Left-align the citations.
  • Use a hanging indent for any citations that go over one line.

What is a bibliography in an essay?

The term bibliography is the term used for a list of sources (e.g. books, articles, websites) used to write an assignment (e.g. an essay). It usually includes all the sources consulted even if they not directly cited (referred to) in the assignment.

What is the standard bibliography format?

The basic format for a book citation requires listing the author’s name, the title of the book, the publisher’s name, and the date of publication. Edited books, when cited in full, will list the editor’s name instead of an author’s name. Becsey, L., Wachsberger, P., Samuels, S., et al (Directors). (2008).

How do I write a bibliography for an essay?

Start a preliminary, or draft, bibliography by listing on a separate sheet of paper all your sources. Note down the full title, author, place of publication, publisher, and date of publication for each source. Also, every time a fact gets recorded on a note card, its source should be noted in the top right corner.

The 7th edition of the MLA Handbook is the basic reference for writers in the humanities, detailing specific formatting instructions for documenting sources. The Works Cited list includes all the references used in the research paper. It is important to alphabetize your entries on the Works Cited page, making it easy to locate the individual references.

Sources With At Least One Author

For sources with at least one author, put the last name first, and alphabetize the entry according to the last name. If there is more than one author, list them in the order they are listed in the original source, and alphabetize as usual by the surname of the first author listed.

Sources With No Listed Author

If a work has no author listed, then list the title first in the Works Cited. In this case, alphabetize the work by the title; do not write “no author,” “anonymous” or similar notations. If the title begins with an article, such as “a,” “an” or “the,” list the title as written, but do not consider the article when alphabetizing.

Alphabetizing Software

Most word-processing software will alphabetize a list for you through a function called “sort.” For instance, MS Word 2019 has the sort function on the “Home” tab of the main toolbar. Simply highlight the references in your Works Cited list and click “sort” and set Sort by to Paragraphs and Text to recategorize them alphabetically. Be advised, however, that the word processor will not ignore initial articles in titles. So if your Works Cited list contains titles that begin with “a,” “an” or “the,” you will need to manually move them to their proper location, alphabetized by the next word in the titles.

  • Purdue University Online Writing Lab: MLA Works Cited Page, Basic Format
  • Microsoft Office Support: Sort a List Alphabetically

Jennifer Spirko has been writing professionally for more than 20 years, starting at "The Knoxville Journal." She has written for "MetroPulse," "Maryville-Alcoa Daily Times" and "Some" monthly. She has taught writing at North Carolina State University and the University of Tennessee. Spirko holds a Master of Arts from the Shakespeare Institute, Stratford-on-Avon, England.

How do you arrange references in alphabetical order?

Sort a list alphabetically in Word

  1. Select the list you want to sort.
  2. Go to Home > Sort.
  3. Set Sort by to Paragraphs and Text.
  4. Choose Ascending (A to Z) or Descending (Z to A).
  5. Select OK.

What is a bibliography of sources?

The term bibliography is the term used for a list of sources (e.g. books, articles, websites) used to write an assignment (e.g. an essay). It usually includes all the sources consulted even if they not directly cited (referred to) in the assignment.

How do you start a bibliography?

Start a preliminary, or draft, bibliography by listing on a separate sheet of paper all your sources. Note down the full title, author, place of publication, publisher, and date of publication for each source. Also, every time a fact gets recorded on a note card, its source should be noted in the top right corner.

How do I create a reference list in Word?

How to add a bibliography in Microsoft Word

  1. Click where you want to insert the bibliography—usually at the end of the document.
  2. Click the Reference tab. Then, click Bibliography in the Citations & Bibliography group.
  3. From the resulting dropdown list, choose a bibliography.

Do numbers come first in APA references?

If a reference list entry begins with a number (as might be the case for a reference with no author), you should alphabetize the entry in the reference list as though the number were spelled out. So in the following example, the reference that begins with 50 would be alphabetized as though 50 were written fifty.

How do you order references in APA format?

Yes, an APA reference page is listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last name. When you have authors with the same last name, you alphabetize them by the first or middle initial. When you have multiple sources with the same author, use the publication year.

Are APA references numbered?

An APA Style reference page is ordered alphabetically by the first element in the reference entry, usually the first author’s last name.

How do you organize APA references?

How to alphabetize your print sources

  1. Organize your Reference page by the last names of the authors (or editors).
  2. If a work has no author or editor, alphabetize by the first word of the title other than a, an, or the.
  3. Arrange same author sources using their last names every time.

What is a bibliography in APA format?

An APA format bibliography is an alphabetical listing of all sources that might be used to write an academic paper, essay, article, or research paper. In some cases, your instructor may require you to hand in a bibliography with your final paper.

What goes first in alphabetical order?

Rule 1. – Alphabetic Order a. alphabetize names by comparing the first unit letter by letter. If the first letters are the same, file in terms of the second letter, and so on.

How do you add references in Google Slides?

To insert a citation, move your cursor next to the item you want to cite. A quote marks button appears next to it. Click it to insert the citation. This is what it looks like in the document; a reference number for the citation is added within the document and the reference is added as a footnote.

Does a bibliography have to be in alphabetical order?

A bibliography is a complete list of the references used in a piece of academic writing. The sources should be listed in alphabetical order by surname of the author or editors name.

How do you add sources?

Create a source Click at the end of the sentence or phrase that you want to cite. On the References tab, click Insert Citation. In the Create Source dialog box, next to Type of Source, select the type of source you want to use (for example, a book section or a website). Enter the details for the source and click OK.

How to arrange References in alphabetical order -2 automatic options

At the end of every academic work, it is expected that one should include his/her source of information which is known as REFERENCES/REFERENCING. The references are expected to be arranged chronologically (in ascending order: A-Z). When the list of references is much to deal with in terms of arranging them in alphabetical order, it becomes a problem and as a result, could lead to frustration and abandonment of such work at that stage of writing.

Recommended: Writing Chapter Five of Research Project -Guide to Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation

Easy step on how to arrange References in alphabetical order

  1. Highlight the entire reference text.
  2. HOLD and PRESS Alt+A+S key. This brings out the SORT TEXT automatically.
  3. PRESS the ENTER Key or OK on the SORT TEXT Dialogue Box.

Most referencing style/format does not require you to provide them the way they appeared in the text (in-text citations), hence for neatness and ease of access, re-arranging them to be in chronological order might be required. Outside the use of shortcut above, let us practically see how to arrange References in alphabetical order.

How to alphabetize a bibliography

how to arrange References in alphabetical order -List of References

The image above shows a list of books but not in order by the authors’ surnames. How can we put the references/Bibliography in alphabetical order?

the first thing you do is to highlight all the text you want to alphabetize. After that, make sure that your screen is showing the Microsoft word HOME. Below the HOME Title Bar, you will see the FONT TYPE and FONT SIZE and same row, look out for the little button next to the paragraph mark as seen in the image below.

How to alphabetize a bibliography

Highlighted List of References

Press the A-Z button. You’ll see a pop-up (dialogue box). See image below.

How to alphabetize a bibliography

Sort Text Dialogue Box

Recommended: Complete Guide on research project writing and graduation thesis

There are several options for ordering text, which can also be found in Excel. By default, it will resolve the text in ascending order (A-Z) but where you have a different arrangement (descending order – Z-A), you can change it accordingly. After selecting the ordering format/style click on OK. Below is the result of the arranged text in alphabetical order.

How to alphabetize a bibliography

Reference List arranged in alphabetical order

Kindly note that you can revert your changes by using the UNDO button or Ctrl+Z if you notice something went wrong or some references split inappropriately.

Also Read: Guidelines for writing a literature review

This is one of the ways you can maximize time when doing your papers, assignment or any research work.

Was this post helpful? Kindly share to reach your friends who might be struggling to pick their references one by one trying to arrange in alphabetical order.

Do not forget to comment below to let us know how helpful this tutorial was to you and also to drop your research-related questions.

I was writing a technical paper for a course I am studying for at university. Being a technical paper, I had to include all my references. I am using Microsoft Office Word 2007 (SP2) on Windows XP (SP3).

I added the references where necessary in the document by clicking on References->Inset Citation. The department requires that the references be numbered in the document, and be listed alphabetically in the Bibliography. So I set the style to ‘ISO 690 – Numerical Reference’. I then went to the end of the document, and created the Bibliography by clicking on ‘References->Bibliography’.

The Bibliography was created, but listed the citations in the order they appeared in the document, not in alphabetically, which is the required standard. I tried selecting the bibliography, and then tried sorting it, by clicking on ‘Home->Sort’, but got the error dialog box ‘The content cannot be sorted because it is part of content control’.

My question is: How do I sort the Bibliography alphabetically by author?

Here is the bibliography as it appears in my document:

1. Levitt, SP. Software Development Methodologies, Analysis and Design – Course Homepage. School of Electrical and Information Engineering . [Online] April 2010.

2. Bruce, Kim, Danyluk, Andrea and Murtagh, Thomas. JAVA: An Eventful Approach. s.l. : Prentice Hall, August 2005.

3. blaqkhavok. Frogger Game – Java. [Online] May 2009.

4. Staff, 2001 South Central USA Regional Programming Contest. [Online] 2001.

5. Bodnar, Jan. Java 2D games tutorial. [Online] 2007.

6. Harold, Elliotte Rusty. Test Driven Development With Eclipse. [Online] December 2005.

I want it to look like this:

3. blaqkhavok. Frogger Game – Java. [Online] May 2009.

5. Bodnar, Jan. Java 2D games tutorial. [Online] 2007.

2. Bruce, Kim, Danyluk, Andrea and Murtagh, Thomas. JAVA: An Eventful Approach. s.l. : Prentice Hall, August 2005.

6. Harold, Elliotte Rusty. Test Driven Development With Eclipse. [Online] December 2005.

1. Levitt, SP. Software Development Methodologies, Analysis and Design – Course Homepage. School of Electrical and Information Engineering . [Online] April 2010.

4. Staff, 2001 South Central USA Regional Programming Contest. [Online] 2001.

How do I achieve this?

Just copy the references to Excel, sort alphabetically and copy back to Word (past text only to remove table)

and add the sort key to your desired value .. here i used tag as a sort option ..

In APA Style, alphabetization is easy as long as you remember these simple rules:

  1. Alphabetize letter by letter.
  2. Ignore spaces, capitalization, hyphens, apostrophes, periods, and accent marks.
  3. When alphabetizing titles or group names as authors, go by the first significant word (disregard a, an, the, etc.)

Do you alphabetize by first or last name?

Hyphenated and compound last names are treated as one unit. Ignore the hyphen and file the two words as one unit. Name of individuals are transposed when filed as follows: last name, first name or initial, then middle name or initial. All Abbreviations in names should be alphabetized as though they were spelled out..

What is difference between reference and bibliography?

There are two main ways to list your sources, with a reference list or a bibliography. References include sources that have been directly cited in your paper. Bibliographies, on the other hand, contain all the sources that you have used for your paper, whether they are directly cited or not.

Do references get their own page?

Yes, your list of references will go on a separate page at or towards the end of your paper, whether you are using APA Style, MLA Style, or Chicago/Turabian Style.

What is APA style reference page?

An APA reference page is where you find all the references for the in-text citations included in your research. It provides the who, when, what, and where information for each different resource you used.

Which comes first references or bibliography?

The Reference list and/or Bibliography will be the very last section of your paper, before the appendices.

What are the examples of reference books?

Use reference books (also called reference or background sources, or resources) to get quick specific facts or information or an overview of a subject. Some examples of reference sources are: dictionaries, encyclopedias, bibliographies, almanacs, directories, atlases, and handbooks. These can be online or in print.

What is a reference page in APA format?

An APA reference page has a distinct look set forth by the American Psychological Association Manual of Style. The formatting of the page includes an optional running header, page number header, 1-inch margins on all sides, references in alphabetical order, hanging indents, and centered title “References.”

Is a bibliography a reference list?

A reference list is the detailed list of references that are cited in your work. A bibliography is a detailed list of references cited in your work, plus the background readings or other material that you may have read, but not actually cited.

What is reference page?

A references page is the last page of an essay or research paper that’s been written in APA style. It lists all the sources you’ve used in your project so readers can easily find what you’ve cited.

I’d like to sort my references alphabetically by last name of the author (firstly Art, then Fart). There’s one more thing – I want to have the last names put in the front.

I guess the latter can be solved simply by

I don’t know about the former. I’m still new to libraries, so I don’t mind using any package. I prefer the simplest code possible though. (I’m using the TeXworks editor.)

My code is below

Picture with intention included:How to alphabetize a bibliography

How to alphabetize a bibliography

1 Answer 1

Sorting of the bibliography requires that you have an external database of entries rather than a hand built list. In your case your external file mybib.bib could be:

To use this in your document there are two approaches: (1) traditional bibtex ; (2) modern biblatex .

Choose a style for the bibliography via \bibliographystyle . Choose the database file and print the bibliography via \bibliography . As you seem to want your authors listed as Lastname, Firstname then one choice is the apa style, which requires the natbib package; pass the option numbers to this package to get numerical citations.

How to alphabetize a bibliography

Load the package biblatex , with style=numeric for numerical citations. To get Lastname, Firstname in the bibilography use the command \DeclareNameAlias . Point to your database via \addbibresource . Put \printbibliography at the place in you file you want the bibliography to appear.

How to alphabetize a bibliography

Read more at Guidelines for customizing biblatex styles and in the biblatex manual combined with the bitex reference above.

Do numbers or letters go first in alphabetical order?

Numbers are listed in alphabetical order as if they were spelled out. So, an organization with a number like ’24/7Service’, would be alphabetized as if it said, ‘twenty-four-seven service’.

How do you alphabetize a business name?

Use the last name to alphabetize businesses that include an individual’s name. For example, convert “John Smith Company” to “Smith, John Company.” This rule does not apply to companies that are so well known that referring to them by the person’s last name would be confusing.

How do you alphabetize MC?

Many Scottish and Irish names begin with Mac or Mc. The conventional way to alphabetize names that start with these prefixes is to treat Mac and Mc the same. Names that start with Mc are treated as though they were spelled Mac. In effect, “Mc” has an invisible “a” between the “M” and “c”.

How do you write a bibliography for a dissertation?

How to write a bibliography?

  1. APA Format:
  2. Format is:
  3. Basics:
  4. Author’s name: start with the last name of the author followed by a comma.
  5. Publication dates: it must contain month-day-year format.
  6. Title: the title of the source should be in italics.
  7. Indentation: the first line of every point should be on the top left.

What comes first in alphanumeric order?

If you add numbers to the names, then the order would be alphanumeric (e.g., if you add “III” after a name). If numbers happen to be attached to two otherwise identical names, then the lower number would go first (if you are putting the list in A to Z order).

What’s the difference between references and a bibliography?

A reference list is the detailed list of references that are cited in your work. A bibliography is a detailed list of references cited in your work, plus the background readings or other material that you may have read, but not actually cited.

What comes first alphabetically MC or MA?

They also largely ignore distinctions among different punctuation marks and do not distinguish among the types of access points. In these rules, for example, names beginning with M’, Mc, and Mac are filed alphabetically as spelled.

What are the rules for alphabetical order?

Alphabetical Order Always alphabetize names by the first letter of the last name. A before B, and so on. If the first letters of the last name are the same, order according to the second letter.

How do you write a thesis bibliography in APA format?

Proper Bibliographic Reference Format:

  1. Bibliographic references are double-spaced and indented half an inch after the first line.
  2. Use italics and “sentence-style” capitalization for dissertation / thesis titles.
  3. Identify the work as a doctoral dissertation / master’s thesis in parentheses after the title.

What is alphabetical order example?

An example of straightforward alphabetical ordering follows: As; Aster; Astrolabe; Astronomy; Astrophysics; At; Ataman; Attack; Baa.

How do you alphabetize a movie title?

Right now, numbered movies go first, then a-z. Sequels go after the previous movie, even if the first letter is different, The Dark Knight comes after Batman Begins. Godzilla 1954 goes before Godzilla 2014, etc. Now…

How do you alphabetize a book title?

Alphabetizing is done by letter, rather than word. This applies to collections that are shelved by the author’s last name and by title. First, you would alphabetize by the author’s last name (only 7 letters will be on the spine label), then author’s first name, then book title if necessary.

What does a bibliography look like?

What does a bibliography look like? In general, bibliographies have the page number, title, and all the works you used in alphabetical order. Annotated bibliographies also include a short summary of the text.

How do you write a bibliography or references?

  1. Author/editor.
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets).
  3. Title (in italics).
  4. Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition).
  5. Place of publication: publisher.
  6. Series and volume number (where relevant).

Which comes first in alphabetical order?

If many words have the same first letter, they are sorted by their second letters. After that, the third and fourth letters are used until the whole list is sorted. If one word has no more letters to compare while the other does, then the first (shorter) word comes first in alphabetical order.

What is a bibliography in a dissertation?

The Bibliography or List of References appears after the Body of the Document. It is a complete listing of all cited resources used to create your document. Reference lists are formatted according to the instructions provided by the most recent edition of your chosen style manual. …

What goes first references or bibliography?

The Reference list and/or Bibliography will be the very last section of your paper, before the appendices.

A list of works cited, which appears at the end of your paper, gives full publishing information for each of the sources you have cited in the paper. Start on a new page and title your list Works Cited. Then list in alphabetical order all the sources that you have cited in the paper. Unless your instructor asks for them, sources not actually cited in the paper should not be given in this list, even if you have read them.

How to Alphabetize Your Print Sources

When using MLA style, organize your Works Cited by the last names of the authors (or editors).

If a work has no author or editor, alphabetize by the first word of the title other than a, an, or the.


The phrase “Works Cited” is centered at top of the page in regular formatting.

Use double-spacing throughout.

First line of each entry is at left margin; subsequent lines are indented ½” or five spaces (use MS Word hanging indent).

For each entry in the Works Cited, there should be a corresponding citation in the essay text.

On-line Journal

Note: The first date is the website’s date of creation or latest update while the second date is the day the writer accessed the page.

Read more information about citing online sources.

Baucom, Ian. “Charting the Black Atlantic.” Postmodern Culture 8.1 (1997): 28 pars. Web. 13 April 2013.


Read more information about citing online sources.

California Wildlife Protection Coalition. California Mountain Lion Page. Sierra Club, 24 March 1999. Web. 13 April 2013.


Read more information about citing periodicals.

Dennis, Carl. “What Is Our Poetry to Make of Ancient Myths?” New England Review 18.4 (1997): 128-40. Print.

Read more information about citing books.

Hansen, Kevin. Cougar: The American Lion. Flagstaff: Northland, 1992. Print.

“Lion Attacks Prompt State to Respond.” New York Times 18 Oct. 1995, late ed.: A21. Print.


Read more information about citing books.

“Lion.” Encyclopedia Britannica. 15th ed. 1997. Print.


Read more information about citing books.

Malouf, David. “The Kyogle Line.” The Oxford Book of Travel Stories. Ed. Patricia Craig. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1996. 390-96. Print.


Read more information about citing periodicals.

Perry, Tony. “Big Cat Fight.” Los Angeles Times 8 Mar. 1996, home ed.: B1+. Print.


Primates. Wild Discovery. Discovery Channel. Boston, 23 Mar. 1998. Television.

Updike, John. In the Beauty of the Lilies. Knopf, 1996. Film.

—. Toward the End of Time. Knopf, 1997. Film.

Youtube Video

Shimabukuro, Jake. “Ukulele Weeps by Jake Shimabukuro.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 22 Apr. 2006. Web. 10 April 2013.


Obama, Barack (BarackObama). “It’s up to all of us—the people—to stand up to those who say we can’t and stand up for the change we need.” 8 April 2013, 6:12 p.m. Tweet.


Smith, David. “Re: How to Write in MLA.” Message to Joe Brown. 10 Dec. 2012. E-mail.

A bibliography is a list of the sources you used to get information for your report. It is included at the end of your report, on the last page (or last few pages).

How do you write bibliographic information?

Bibliographic InformationAuthor name.Title of publication.Article title (if using a journal)Date of publication.Place of publication.Publisher.Volume number of a journal, magazine or encyclopedia.Page number(s)

How do you arrange information in a bibliography page?

How to alphabetize your print sourcesOrganize your Reference page by the last names of the authors (or editors).If a work has no author or editor, alphabetize by the first word of the title other than a, an, or the.Arrange same author sources using their last names every time.

What information do you need for a bibliography?

In general, a bibliography should include:the authors’ names.the titles of the works.the names and locations of the companies that published your copies of the sources.the dates your copies were published.the page numbers of your sources (if they are part of multi-source volumes)

How does a bibliography look?

What does a bibliography look like? Depending on the style guide you are using, bibliographies can look different. In general, bibliographies have the page number, title, and all the works you used in alphabetical order. Annotated bibliographies also include a short summary of the text.

How to alphabetize a bibliography

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Change Case

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Remove Duplicates

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Capitalize Very first Letter

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Remove linebreaks from text

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How to alphabetize a bibliography

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How to alphabetize a bibliography

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  • All this newspapers conducted throughout themes related to Great Martial arts, History and Business enterprise Operations can only have bibliographies designed in Turabian model.
  • Step Some: Push the particular Alphabetize option within the wording spot.
  • Removal – clear off duplicates, punctuation weaknesses, mounting brackets, plus avoidable HTML
  • The correspondence by way of notification alphabetization is needed beyond doubt. A person meant to utilize this particular tip merely to the initial page of each and every source. It would be useful for every single page or even alphabet.
  • The page by way of page alphabetization is needed without a doubt. You are not meant to submit an application this rule only to the primary page of each and every source. It becomes used by just about every notice or alphabet.

Housing and Town Planning. “The Laying-out Connected with Cities And Towns.” Journal of your Franklin Institute140 (August 1895):90-99 help with college homework If you give A Alphabetizer a list of bands, and you simply ought to alphabetize that listing by simply last name, similar to for any list of wedding and reception guests, insurance companies, lawyers, and many others, make sure you select this approach. In international rating “The Payday loan lenders the long term: Hexagonal Building Thought for just a Innovative [Land] Section. All that you should carry out is to discuss the offered methods to have the sought after success. All that you should carry out is to discuss the offered methods to have the sought after success.

According to the MLA handbook, the entries in your works cited list should be alphabetized. After completing your MLA paper and creating your works cited list, alphabetizing references in MLA format is the next step.

Thankfully, alphabetizing the works cited list is very easy because it follows the letter by letter method. (Also learn about alphabetizing references in APA and Chicago format)

How to alphabetize a bibliography

Guidelines for Alphabetizing References

Let’s go through some guidelines when alphabetizing references, shall we?

List the entries alphabetically

You are expected to list each entry alphabetically by the author’s last name. The letters that appear before the comma that separates the last name from the first name should be considered during the arrangement. However, in the case where the last names of two or more entries are the same, then the letters after the comma, i.e. the first name should be considered.

In the course of alphabetizing, you are required to ignore spaces and other punctuation marks.

Special characters and diacritical marks are to be ignored

When the author is unknown

When the author of the source is not known, you are expected to alphabetize the entry by the title.

“Algerian Costumes for Theatre Arts”

“Benton Ousted in the zoo.”

Multiple works by a single author

When a single author has multiple works, you are to alphabetize the list by title. Substitute the author’s name with three hyphens (—) in the subsequent entries followed by a period. However, you are not to place three hyphens in place of the author’s name when the author is listed in another work with multiple authors.

Sydney, Margaret. “ A Way To Reach The Sky”

—. “Mankind getting to the moon.”

Thomas, McAlister. “Effects of Hydrogen in The body.”

Thomas, McAlister. “Pollution and what it does to the body.”

Thomas, McAlister, et al. “Confirmation of the impact of CO2 on the lungs.”

Multiple works, coauthors

When you have multiple entries with the first listed author’s name the same, then you are to alphabetize with the last name of the second author listed.

Rene, Defacto, and Jim, Thomas

Rene, Defacto, and Vaugh, Zachary

However, if the coauthors are the same in the same other, you are to give the name in the first entry, then replace both their names with three hyphens followed by a period. Make sure to alphabetize them by title.

Rene, Defacto, and Jim, Thomas. “The imagination of females.”

—. “ The linguistics of sexual intercourse.”

Alphabetizing references by title

In the event when you will need to alphabetize the entries by title, you are to alphabetize letter by letter and ignore articles such as The, A, and And in any language they might be written.

Titles that start with a number

When you are alphabetizing your works cited list, you are expected to treat the numbers as though they are spelt out. For instance, 2 is two and 42 is forty-two

1999 conceptualization of arts

How To Alphabetize Your Works Cited List Using Microsoft Word

Highlight all the entries in the work cited list with the exclusion of the page’s header

Click on the “sort” icon in the paragraph ribbon on the Home tab

A popup window will open. Under sort by, click paragraph

Under Type, click on Text and then click ascending

Click on ok and Microsoft word will automatically sort your list.

What does a bibliography look like? Depending on the style guide you are using, bibliographies can look different. In general, bibliographies have the page number, title, and all the works you used in alphabetical order. Annotated bibliographies also include a short summary of the text.

What is a bibliography page in APA?

An APA format bibliography is an alphabetical listing of all sources that might be used to write an academic paper, essay, article, or research paper. In some cases, your instructor may require you to hand in a bibliography with your final paper.

How do you format a job reference list?

What to Include on a Reference List

  1. Include the reference’s full contact information. List their full name, title, and company in addition to their street address, phone, and email.
  2. Include your contact information.
  3. Add a title to the page.
  4. Be consistent with your formatting.
  5. Check for accuracy.

What is the correct format of a bibliography?

Collect this information for each Web Site:

  • author name.
  • title of the publication (and the title of the article if it’s a magazine or encyclopedia)
  • date of publication.
  • the place of publication of a book.
  • the publishing company of a book.
  • the volume number of a magazine or printed encyclopedia.
  • the page number(s)

How do you alphabetize a bibliography?

  1. When using MLA style, organize your Works Cited by the last names of the authors (or editors).
  2. If a work has no author or editor, alphabetize by the first word of the title other than a, an, or the.

How do you write a bibliography for a website in APA format?

Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines. APA website citations usually include the author, the publication date, the title of the page or article, the website name, and the URL….Websites with no author.

Even in our modern digital age, alphabetization plays an important role in our every day lives. From looking up a contact on our iPhone, to finding a CD in a music store, (they still have those?) knowing your letters is a valuable skill that isn’t headed for obsolescence any time soon!

A few reasons we need to learn how to alphabetize a list include:

  • Locating a song in a playlist
  • Finding a book in the library
  • Looking up definitions in a dictionary or pages and chapters in a textbook
  • Filing work documents

How to Teach Alphabetization?

Many teachers teach their students how to alphabetize in four steps which slowly build up their familiarity with the alphabet, ability to recall the order of letters, and ability to alphabetize by more than one letter at a time. These stages are as follows:

Stage 1: Learn to put Letters in Order

In the first stage of learning to alphabetize, children who are already familiar with the alphabet will practice putting letters in order. Typically this is done with tiles or flash cards that contain every letter of the alphabet. Children are asked to put the tiles in order, or are asked to put the letter down which follows a particular letter, by reciting the ABC’s and figuring out which letter is appropriate.

Stage 2: Learn to Alphabetize Words to the First Letter

Once the child becomes confident organizing the letters of the alphabet, they will be able to learn to alphabetize words. This can be done by putting words on pieces of paper or flash cards and pointing out the first letter of each word. Then those letters can be circled and compared to other words and sorted accordingly. Having the alphabet on-hand can also be useful in case the child forgets the order of letters.

Stage 3: Alphabetize to the Second, Third and Fourth Letters

At this stage, students will be presented with words that begin with the same first two, three or four letters. They will be asked to compare the words until they find differences in the lettering and to determine which of the differing letters come first and and which position in the word they occur.

State 4: Alphabetizing Proper Nouns, Names and Unique Circumstances

At the more advanced levels, students can learn to compare surnames with unique capitalization, how to sort a list of titles by ignoring articles, and other advanced rules for alphabetization.

Alphabetizing is still an important skill, so work with your children on it. Who knows when an electromagnetic pulse will permanently disable all our electronics and we’ll be back to doing things the old way!

When you document references in your paper, there are certain guidelines you should follow to adhere to the proper style guide for your paper. One requirement for an MLA style bibliography is to include a list of the works referred to in the paper. This list is generally alphabetized and is referred to as Resources, Works Cited or Bibliography.

If you are creating a reference list in the MLA style, the list would be called Works Cited. However, donΓÇÖt confuse the Works Cited list with MLA styleΓÇÖs Selected Bibliography or Works Consulted. A bibliography is a much more complete and comprehensive list of works including all works you utilize in any way in your paper. You do not need to directly cite a work in your paper to list it in the bibliography. Works you refer to in even an obscure way or you use in your research impacting your paper can be in the bibliography.

MLA Style Bibliography Characteristics

Just as in a References or Works Cited list, the works you list in your MLA style bibliography should be in alphabetical order with the author’s last name first, then a comma, then the first name followed by a period. If the author is unknown, you can list the work with reference to the editor, translator or other source, or if no source is known, alphabetized by the first word of the title.

MLA Style Bibliography Format

You will format your MLA style bibliography just like a Works Cited or Resources list. Some points you need to remember are that entries are not numbered, just listed alphabetically; if “A,” “An” or “The” is at the beginning of a title, it is not alphabetized (use the word that follows); also, entries are not separated into categories in any way; again, listing the entries alphabetically will suffice, regardless of the source and influence of the citation.

In terms of formatting the bibliography, use a new, blank page; start one inch down, center the type, and title the page “Selected Bibliography,” Selected List of Works ConsultedΓÇ¥ or ΓÇ£Suggestions for Further Reading.ΓÇ¥ Double space after the title, then begin by listing all of your entries in alphabetical order by the first word, remembering the guidelines governing items with titles that begin with “A,” “An” or “The”.

    MLA Style Bibliography

Adams, Patrice. “Fast and Furious Editing.” ChoicePoint [New York]. 12 June 2001.

“Beginner Editing: Presenting Your Sources.” Webmaster Tips Newsletter.

WebGuru. “Beginner Tip #4.” WebGuru. N.p., 10 Aug. 1999. Web. .

Begin all of your bibliography entries flush with the left margin of the page. Type until you reach the right margin, then indent five spaces for any additional lines you may need within the same item entry. Make sure to double space the entire page both within each item you list, as well as between them.

While you can definitely learn and perfect the MLA formatting style with some practice, there are also resources available to aid in the easy and accurate adherence to MLA guidelines in order to create a MLA style bibliography. These days there are numerous quality formatting software products on the market that can help take the tedium out of this aspect of academic writing.

David Plaut is the founder of Reference Point Software (RPS). RPS offers a complete suite of easy-to-use formatting template products featuring MLA and APA style templates, freeing up time to focus on substance while ensuring formatting accuracy. For more information, log onto or write to:
info @

Reference Point Software is not associated with, endorsed by, or affiliated with the American Psychological Association (APA) or with the Modern Language Association (MLA).

Wednesday, February 22nd, 2012 at 10:51 pm and is filed under Writing Tips. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. –> Both comments and pings are currently closed.

Unlike MS Word, which will automatically alphabetize your reference/citations if organized in individual paragraphs — Pages is no Word clone, and alphabetizing your bibliography is a manual process by rearrangement.

Just another example of how using Word would provide professional features that save you time.

Dec 4, 2016 12:19 PM

Dec 4, 2016 12:23 PM

Viking makes a valid point. Use the better tool for the job.

Should you wish to try sorting the bibliography on your own, though, here’s a method using Numbers to do the actual sort. It requires that your bibliography entries each be in a separate paragraph, and constitute the whole paragraph (ie. the paragraph must end with a return character, and may contain NO other return character).

Here’s a sample, ordered as entered, and selected for copying.:

Select the list and copy.

Open a new Numbers document using one of the Blank templates.

Click once on sell B2 and Paste.

Move the mouse pointe onto the column reference tab for column B, and click on the white v that appears (shown below in Black, which it changes to when clicked). Choose Sort Ascending from the menu.

Select all of column B (excluding the empty Header row) and Copy. Click the T button above the workspace to insert a text box on the sheet. Click the word “Text” in the box and Paste. (This step converts the set of cells copied from the table—which would paste into Pages as a single column Table—to a list in plain text—which will paste into Pages as a set of paragraphs.

Select all of the list in the text box, Copy.

Return to your Pages document click on the location to receive the list, and Paste.

Scholarly writing is quite different from the kind people do just for fun. You have more responsibility to the reader, as you’re entering an academic conversation and need to prove you’ve borrowed some ideas so readers will understand you are responsible for others. The “Chicago Manual of Style” is one of a few standardized ways to structure language. In order to write a paper or article in proper format, you’ll have to include a bibliography to lead readers to your sources. Here’s how to do this under the rules of the “Chicago Manual of Style.”

Explore this article

1 Collect the important information

Collect the important information you’ll need from all of your books, magazines and electronic resources first. Be sure to remember this kind of thing as you go along, since it can be a real pain to try and go back and find which press published one of the books. You may want to simply make a photocopy of the book’s title page and keep it with your notes so you can’t forget.

2 Consult the book

Consult the book. The book can be found in most libraries. Purchasing it isn’t a bad idea, either. It’s packed with the information you need to provide crisp, clear prose. There are also online resources. Visit the Chicago Manual of Style’s own quick guide for citation at the link provided in the Resources section below.

3 Start out

Start out by simply typing “Bibliography” at the center of the top of a new page. The entries will be in alphabetical order by the author’s last name. Thanks to the wonder of word processing, you can simply cut and paste the entries into order after they’re all down and correct.

4 Figure

Figure out what kind of publication your first source is. It can be a book with two authors, a journal article, a book review or even something else. Look at the Chicago Manual of style to see how an entry should be structured. For example, a Chicago-style citation for a book with one author would look like this: Author last name, author first name. Title (in italics). City of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

5 Work through all of your sources

Work through all of your sources in the same way. This may take a while, but it’s not complicated; you’re just putting information into a formula. Once you’re done with all of your sources, move them around until they’re all in alphabetical order by the author’s last name. Your bibliography should be at the end of your paper. The first line of each entry should be an inch from the margin with subsequent lines indented one-half inch more.

About the Author

Ethan Pendleton is a teacher and writer in Columbus, Ohio. He holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in English from Ohio State University at Marion and teaches writing in various capacities in his community.

An annotated bibliography is your works cited list, with added information for each source. In addition to the citation, each annotation should include a concise summary of and evaluation of each of the sources. Each annotation should be a strong paragraph (about 150 words), double spaced. The annotations should be alphabetized by citation, just as you would alphabetize your works cited.

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In any piece of written work in which you have cited references to published works, it is necessary to provide a bibliography , or list of references, at the end of your work.

You should provide only one such list. For some reason, many people have acquired the curious belief that they should give two lists: one list of all the references in the order they occur, and a second alphabetical list, or something similar. This silly practice is a pointless waste of time and paper: there should be only one list of references, and the references in your text should direct the reader straight to that list, as explained earlier.

The precise form of your bibliography may vary slightly, depending on what system you have used for citing references in your document. Here I shall assume that you have used the Harvard system, as recommended.

The bibliography is put into alphabetical order according to the surnames of the authors and editors you are citing. If you cite two authors with the same surname, put them in alphabetical order by their first names or initials. If you cite several different works by the same author, put them in date order, earliest to latest. If you have two or more works with the same author and the same date, use the a , b , c system already described. When you cite multiple works by the same author, that author’s name need be written out only once; for succeeding works, you can use a horizontal line instead of repeating the name. A book with no author or editor is listed alphabetically by its title.

There are just three types of work which are very commonly cited in bibliographies: books, articles in books, and articles in journals. For each type, the form of the reference is slightly different, but, above all, the reference must be complete .

For a book, you must give the name(s) of the author(s) or editor(s), the date, the title, the place of publication and the name of the publisher. For an article in a book, you must give the name(s) of the author(s), the title of the article and the first and last pages, as well as full information on the book itself, as just described. For an article in a journal, you must give the name(s) of the author(s), the date, the title of the article, the name of the journal, the volume number and the first and last pages. Names of authors should be given just as they appear in their publications.

If you are citing two or more articles from a single book, you can put that book into your list as usual, and cross-refer each article to that book, as shown below.

There are several slightly different systems for arranging and punctuating references in a bibliography, almost all of them acceptable. They differ chiefly in whether they use full stops or commas to separate parts of the reference, in whether they put quotation marks around the titles of articles, and in where they place the date. I recommend full stops rather than commas, single quotation marks around titles of articles, and the placing of the date immediately after the author’s name, and that is the system used in my examples below. Standard sources like The MLA Style Guide often recommend slightly different systems, and your tutor or publisher may insist upon one of these; in that case, you should fall into line, but make sure your references are complete.

Here is a sample bibliography: Anderson, Henrietta. 1986. A Study of Shoes . New York: Cavalier Press. ——— 1989a. American Footwear: A Cultural History . Boston: Institute for American Cultural Studies. ——— 1989b. The Rise and Rise of the Stiletto Heel . New York: Cavalier Press. Cannon, Felix (ed.) 1964. European Footwear: a Collection of Readings . Oxford: John Compton & Sons. Ginsberg, Sylvie and Kate Bruton (eds). 1977. If the Shoe Fits: Essays on the History of Footwear . San Diego: Malibu Press. Halliwell, C. N. 1990. `The Irish brogue’. In C. L. James and P. T. Caldwell (eds). British and Irish Footwear 1720–1880 . Dublin: Irish Academy of Arts. Pp. 173–203. Institute for American Cultural Studies. 1978. A Sourcebook on American Costume . Boston: Institute for American Cultural Studies. Jensen, Carla. 1964. `The wellington boot’. In Cannon (1964), pp. 358–71. Kaplan, Irene. 1983. `The evolution of the stiletto heel’. American Journal of Costume 17: 38–51. ——— 1990a. Review of Anderson (1989b). American Journal of Costume 24: 118–121. ——— 1990b. `The platform shoe and its influence’. Boots and Shoes 23:154–178. Maxwell, Catherine. 1982. `The ski boot: practical footwear or fashion accessory?’ Boots and Shoes 15: 1–37. Maxwell, Catherine and Henrietta Anderson. 1981. `The great American sneaker’. Boots and Shoes 14: 77–92. Maxwell, George. 1964. `Italian Renaissance footwear’. In Cannon (1964), pp. 105–138. Shoes and Boots: a Compendium . 1950. London: British Museum.

Note carefully how these references are given. If you need to cite some other kind of work, such as a newspaper article, a sound recording, a film, a video, a radio or television broadcast or a CD-ROM, you should consult a comprehensive source such as The MLA Style Manual . However, so long as your reference is complete, you can’t go too far wrong.

One further point. If you have to enter a title in your alphabetical list, ignore the words the , a and an at the beginning. So, a book entitled A History of Footwear would be listed under H, not under A, and the newspaper called The Guardian would be listed as Guardian , under G.

If you are using the number system for citing references, then, of course, each item in your bibliography must be preceded by its number. You should still, however, put those items in alphabetical order. Many people who use the number system simply list the items in the order in which they occur in the text. This allows the reader to find a particular reference, all right, but she can no longer glance at your bibliography to see if particular authors or works are present. All readers will find this unhelpful, at best, and a university tutor is likely to be very annoyed.

Probably the most tedious part of writing a paper is preparing the bibliography. In order to ease the pain, even if only slightly, the easiest way to get started on your bibliography is to start it before you even start writing your paper. Keep careful notes on each book, article or encyclopedia that you are using as you go along. Start drafting your bibliography right away, noting the title of each source, along with the place of publication, the publisher and publication date.

Each time you record a fact on a note card, note the source in the top right hand corner, using some sort of shorthand or abbreviation to make it simpler. Once you are done writing your paper, you can double-check your bibliography against the information on your note cards.

When you are ready to put your bibliography together, alphabetize your sources by authors’ last names. For sources like encyclopedias or movies that don’t have specific authors, alphabetize them by title. Bibliography formats do vary somewhat, so be sure to use the one that your teacher specifies.

General Formatting Styles for a Bibliography

Some general formatting guidelines are as follows:

• For a book, list the author, the title of the book, the city, publisher and date of publication;
• For an encyclopedia, list the title, the edition date, the volume number, the article title, and page numbers referenced;
• For a magazine, list the author, the article title, the name of the magazine, the volume number, date and page numbers;
• For a newspaper, list the author, the article title, the name of the newspaper, city, state of publication, date, edition if available, section and page numbers;
• For a person, list the name, occupation and date of interview;
• For a movie, list the title, director, distributor and year;
• For a CD, list the disc title, the version, date, article title, pages if applicable, and publisher;
• For a website, list the URL, the author or item name, and date;
• For an electronic bulletin board, list the author of the message, date, subject line, name of the bulletin board, the word (Online), and email if available.

Authors should always be listed last name first. Names of books, encyclopedias, magazines, movies, newspapers, CD titles and websites should be underlined, and magazine, newspaper and Internet posting dates should be in parentheses. Put quotation marks around all article titles.

Format your bibliography before you get started with your research and you will find it to be much easier to put together when you are finished.

Well, an English bibliography would be sorted according to an English alphabet. You can change the language of the bibliography for some citation styles, but that doesn’t just change the sorting, it changes the text/punctuation as well.

I’m also guessing that by web-based Zotero you mean Zotero in Firefox, not If you’re using, you will not have the option to change the language.

No, this isn´t an English/Turkish thing, at least not to the degree that the OP is seeing it:
You´d get

in an English bibliography (umlauts are just treated like the regular vowel, so you´d get

It´s likely a character composition issue. Try replacing the first letter of wrongly sorted authors by hand. They should then sort correctly.

For Turkish styles or with a client set to the TR locale, you do get the correct sorting, i.e.

Oops, you are right. I don’t think composition affects this though. ‘Ö’.normalize(‘NFC’).localeCompare(‘Ö’.normalize(‘NFD’), ‘tr’) == 0

I guess at this point it’s quite important to figure out if you’re actually using or the Zotero client in Firefox.

@jimkuras, looks like this will not be a quick fix. If this is possible for you to do, we certainly recommend installing Zotero Standalone or Zotero as a Firefox extension and using Word integration plugins to generate your bibliographies. This will make a lot of things easier for you and will result in proper sorting. (If you do just need to copy paste a bibliography, you can do that as well)

How to alphabetize a bibliographyI was inspired to write this post after having to put yet another student’s bibliography into alphabetical order. I know the quick and easy way to do this – but I don’t think a lot of people know that you can do this!

So, you’ve got your bibliography, and you’ve been very good and followed the rules for setting it out (I’ve used Harvard method here) but it’s not in alphabetical order by author surname, and, except in certain cases,* it really should be.

*A very few referencing systems ask for the bibliography to be in the order in which the references appear in the text. I’ve hardly ever had to deal with them. But I like completeness!

How to alphabetize a bibliography

So, a lovely list of books but not in order by the authors’ surnames. How can we resolve this without swapping all the lines around?

First, highlight all the text you want to alphabetise. Then, make sure you’ve got the Home tab at the front. See that little button you’ve never even seen before, next to the paragraph mark?

How to alphabetize a bibliography

Press the A-Z button and up pops a dialogue box.

How to alphabetize a bibliography

There are all sorts of ways in which you can order the text, which are very similar to the ways you can order text and numbers in Excel. You can even specify whether what you’re sorting has a header row (I’m not sure why you’d want to do that, as you can just exclude the header row when you’re doing the highlighting, but I suppose it would be useful if you realise you’ve accidentally highlighted the headers too). I’ve sorted by Paragraph, Text, and in Ascending Order here, and to be honest, that’s what I always do. Click on OK, and look what you get:

How to alphabetize a bibliography

Here’s our bibliography in order by author surname with just a highlight of the text and a few clicks – much quicker and with far less risk of human error than doing it manually.

Note: if your results come out a bit odd and have split your entries up into two halves, reverse your alphabetising by either hitting Control-Z or the Undo button, and check there aren’t any pesky hard returns hiding out in the middle of paragraphs (the best way to do this is to click the Paragraph button, to the right of the A-Z button and look out for bent arrows signifying carriage returns). Get rid of those and alphabetise again to your heart’s content!

This is part of my series on how to avoid time-consuming “short cuts” and use Word in the right way to maximise your time and improve the look of your documents.

If you have enjoyed this post and found it useful, please click on the “share” buttons below or tell your friends and colleagues about it! Thank you!

Please note, these hints work with versions of Microsoft Word currently in use – Word 2003, Word 2007 and Word 2010, all for PC. Mac compatible versions of Word should have similar options. Always save a copy of your document before manipulating it. I bear no responsibility for any pickles you might get yourself into!