How to age copper

How to age copper

Aged copper, whether or not a traditional blue-green or a deep cinnamon tone, is solely gorgeous, but it could actually take years to realize a really aged look naturally. This end is the results of a patina growing over the copper, a protecting movie that retains the copper under from corroding additional. You’ll be able to create related results with store-bought patinas, an answer generally utilized in pictures growth or extra widespread family supplies. Begin by cleansing the copper completely with kitchen spray and a scrub brush, rinsing it clear with water and drying it with a lint-free material.

Blue-Inexperienced Look

Add blue-green copper patina resolution to a plastic dish. Apply the answer to the copper with a foam brush, leaving a few of the copper untouched for a barely distressed look. Let this dry fully, watching the colour change.

Apply a second coat of patina if the preliminary shade is to not your liking. Hold repeating this course of, making use of the patina after which letting it dry, till the copper is a shade you want. If the shade turns into too opaque, return in with a scrub brush or sandpaper to scuff the end.

Spray the copper with a transparent topcoat meant for metallic. This prevents additional oxidation, sustaining the present look.

Darkened Look

Sand the copper with fine-grit sandpaper after which with ultra-fine grit sandpaper. Wipe away the mud with a clear, damp material and wipe the piece dry with a lint-free rag.

Mix 1 half pictures speedy fixer with 2 components clear water in a shallow glass or plastic dish. The dish must be massive sufficient in order that the copper can lie flat in it and deep sufficient in order that the piece is absolutely submerged. To maintain a lighter impact on the face of the copper, solely add sufficient diluted speedy fixer to come back up simply alongside the sting of the piece.

Cowl a piece floor with a drop material and place the copper inside the dish. Let this sit for 10 minutes or extra. In case you opted to maintain the answer shallow, rock the dish backwards and forwards and facet to facet, sliding it throughout the work floor, permitting the answer to scrub over the face of the piece whereas holding the underside portion submerged. Watch the copper because it slowly modifications shade, stopping when it reaches a end you want.

Rinse the copper with clear water and let it air-dry. Repeat this course of once more if you’d like the copper darker. Upon getting a end you want, apply a transparent spray sealant meant for metallic to finish the look.

Colourful Seems

Add a few thumbnail measurement quantity of liver of sulfur and a drop of ammonia to 1 cup of heat water. Dip the copper within the resolution after which buff it away with a clear material. Rinse completely and permit the piece to air-dry. This creates a rainbow impact of blues and pinks on the metallic.

Place the copper in a resealable bag with a heat, halved hard-boiled egg. Shut the bag and let this sit for 3 to 4 days, or till the copper is a shade you want. This creates a blackened impact on the metallic.

Rinse the copper in mineral water and let it air-dry. This creates a pure variation within the shade, good for a extra refined look.

Apply a transparent sealant after every of those strategies to guard the brand new patina.

How to age copper

Whereas engaged on a latest fee I encountered the problem of creating shiny new copper look outdated and weathered. Whereas I assumed I remembered from my elementary faculty days some easy concoction of vinegar, upon additional analysis it appears the easy recipe I keep in mind is for making OLD copper look new and glossy – fallacious approach. After on-line analysis galore, a number of journeys to the ironmongery store, and a few trial and error, right here is the recipe I got here up with:

For prepping the floor you will have:

How to age copper

Rubber gloves

Acetone (nail polish remover may work) for eradicating any varnish

Windex authentic system

Metal wool and/or scotch pads for roughing up floor

For the growing older resolution you will have equal components:

How to age copper

**Spray bottle to combine them in, if desired

How to age copper

How to age copper

How to age copper

**In my expertise sprinkling some salt crystals instantly on the floor after making use of the answer will give some attention-grabbing pitting results when you’re going for that.

I repeated this course of twice, leaving the copper within the bag for 1-Three hours every time. After gently washing away the unfastened bits of patina utilizing water and a scotch pad my outcomes have been thus:

How to age copper

To see Sara’s Steampunk Journal accomplished with back and front copper covers, click on HERE.

Do any of you may have suggestions for growing older copper or brass manageable from an condominium patio? Please share within the feedback!

What Others Are Saying

My opinion is you sloughed off an excessive amount of of that attractive shade. You MANAGE the patina of copper and it took apply for me to realize the look I wished.
Additionally, shine is a SIN on this end. After I carved and painted waterfowl, we known as it ‘that sheen’. It’s allusive, however the ah-ha second.

How to age copper

Copper tarnish happens in a multi-stage course of that first offers the metallic a deep purple shade, then a black hue and eventually the sea-green patina made well-known by the Statue of Liberty and world landmarks such because the Berlin Cathedral, Vienna’s Belvedere Palace and the Parliament Constructing in Victoria, British Columbia. Copper tarnish could also be a function on architectural constructions, however it may be an eyesore on copper sinks and pots, and there are methods to take away it.

Nevertheless, while you take away the patina, you expose the copper to additional tarnishing. Though it might be unpleasant to some, the copper patina protects the metallic beneath, which is why copper lasts so lengthy outside.

Copper Tarnish Is not Rust

Copper tarnish, like rust, is brought on by oxidation, however they don’t seem to be the identical factor. Rust happens in metals that comprise iron, and the tip results of oxidation is iron oxide, which is a flaky compound that falls away, exposing extra of the metallic to oxidation and degrading it.

Not one of the compounds produced by copper oxidation are as fragile. They continue to be on the floor, and whereas intermediate compounds proceed to oxidize to provide the ultimate patina, they shield the metallic beneath. Copper corrosion can result in deterioration, as happens with copper water pipes, however that is often due to an exacerbating issue, similar to water with excessive very excessive or low pH or excessive ranges of dissolved salts or oxygen.

The Phases of Copper Corrosion

Within the first stage of the formation of a patina, copper reacts with oxygen within the air to kind copper (I) oxide:

This turns the copper a reddish shade. Within the second stage, this compound reacts with oxygen to kind copper(II) oxide (CuO), which is black:

You’ll be able to observe these reactions for your self by inserting a sheet of copper on a gasoline range burner. It first turns purple, then black.

The ultimate stage of patination happens extra slowly and often takes a number of years. Copper (II) oxide and copper (II) sulfide (CuS), which is one other black compound that types when there’s sulfur within the air, react with carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydroxide ions (OH – ) from water within the air to kind three compounds:

  • Cu2CO3(OH)2
  • Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
  • Cu4SO4(OH)6

These are the compounds that kind the patina.

A copper patina develops sooner in polluted air that comprises numerous sulfur, which is a byproduct of burning fossil fuels.

Clear Copper Tarnish

A copper patina is fascinating on a historic constructing, and a few individuals just like the look of tarnished copper sinks and pots, however others want the look of latest copper. In case you’re certainly one of these, you want a weak acid that can dissolve the copper compounds with out harming the metallic. You need not look any farther than your kitchen cabinets for copper cleaner that is not poisonous, as some business copper cleaners are.

Nearly each web site that gives recommendation on cleansing copper recommends vinegar and salt. Sprinkle salt on the metallic and rub with a material soaked with vinegar and let the response between sodium chloride and acetic acid do the work. For hard-to-remove tarnish, fill your copper pot with salt water, add vinegar and convey to a boil.

To stop tarnish, you could coat the copper with a movie that forestalls publicity to the ambiance. Each copper polish and lacquer are efficient for sinks and ornamental objects, however neither ought to be used on cooking implements.

How to age copper

Copper nearly appears to be a metallic made for woodworkers. Its heat, wealthy shade enhances wooden relatively than preventing with it for our consideration. And, copper, one of many first metals utilized by man, works simply.

These virtues gave copper widespread recognition throughout the Arts and Crafts motion early on this century. Arts and Crafts properties and furnishings, which burdened the great thing about pure supplies and handwork, usually mixed copper and wooden.

So, after we researched a clock challenge, we determined that the shiny, new copper on the face wanted an aged look, as proven above. After some experimenting, we got here up with a easy solution to give copper that been-around-awhile search for initiatives within the Arts and Crafts fashion.

Working with copper Many crafts-supply shops promote copper sheets for handcrafting, or you should buy it from a metals seller. Copper is available in scores of alloys, although, so inform the seller you need a smooth, malleable one that you would be able to work by hand.

Mark your slicing traces on copper with a scratch axe or different scriber. Pencil marks do not present up effectively on metallic, and markers often make traces too extensive for correct work.

Use a straightedge with nonskid backing. (If you do not have one, put a strip of double-faced tape on the again of a ruler. Press it towards your shirt sleeve a few occasions to scale back the tape’s tack earlier than beginning the structure.) Scribe curved traces towards a French curve or template, equally skid-proofed. For complicated layouts, adhere the sample on to the metallic with spray adhesive.

Copper cuts simply. Widespread tin snips will readily deal with straight cuts and mild curves in sheet copper about 1 ⁄32 ” thick or much less. As you chop, do not shut the snips all the way in which. Doing so crimps the metallic’s edge each time the jaw suggestions come collectively. As an alternative, hold the snips shifting ahead so the slicing takes place largely in the back of the jaws.

You can also lower this smooth, non-ferrous metallic with a scrollsaw, bandsaw, or moveable jigsaw. Again the metallic with scrapwood a minimum of 1 ⁄4 ” thick for energy sawing.

A no. 5 blade (.038x.015″ with 16 tooth per inch) works advantageous for a couple of fast scrollsaw cuts. For severe copper sawing, go together with a metal-piercing blade (24-48 tooth per inch), and lubricate it with beeswax. You probably have a variable-speed noticed, run it at a gradual velocity for metallic slicing.

For the bandsaw or jigsaw, choose a general-purpose or metal-cutting blade with 14 or extra tooth per inch. In case you’re utilizing the jigsaw, clamp the workpiece securely to the workbench, the slicing line overhanging the sting. Cowl the noticed’s baseplate with masking tape to forestall scratching the copper.

Clean and true lower edges by submitting. For finest outcomes, clamp the metallic between two items of scrapwood in a vise. Stand the metallic’s edge about 1 ⁄16above the wooden, as proven, and draw a mill-cut bastard file alongside the sting.

How to age copper

Lay out and drill any required holes earlier than ending the metallic. This manner, you will not threat marring the completed floor.

Giving copper the outdated look

Over time craftsmen have used varied therapies to provide new copper an outdated look. One outdated methodology, nonetheless employed by some artisans in the present day, entails bathing the copper in an answer made by dissolving chunks of liver of sulfur (potassium sulfide) in water. However this course of poses a hazard. “Potassium sulfide hydrolyzes in water, releasing hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gasoline as poisonous because the hydrogen cyanide utilized in a gasoline chamber,” warns Dr. Jim Lindberg, professor of chemistry at Drake College. “With out enough air flow, it’ll kill you,” the chemist says.

The thought that growing older copper this manner may all of a sudden cease our personal growing older led us to strive another strategies. In checks, we achieved finest outcomes with one other chemical — speedy fixer, a standard photographic materials. Digicam retailers often promote speedy fixer, or you may verify the Yellow Pages for photographic-supply retailers. (We purchased a 16-ounce bottle of Ilford Common Speedy Fixer. Kodak and others market an identical product.)

Cleansing the copper is the primary order of enterprise. To take away oils and dust, scrub either side with kitchen cleanser. Rinse effectively.

Then, sand the uncovered face to a satin sheen, utilizing a advantageous (purple) Scotchbrite pad adopted by an ultrafine (grey) one. Do not make fingerprints on the copper — put on gloves or maintain the piece with clear rags. (We wore latex medical gloves all through the operation and dealt with the copper by the perimeters.) Wash off the sanding residue. (We swabbed it off with denatured alcohol.)

Dilute the speedy fixer 1:2 with water. To do that, pour a measured quantity of fixer right into a clear two-liter pop bottle (or related appropriate container), after which add twice that quantity of water. Stir or shake to combine.

Pour about 1″ of dilute fixer into an acceptable glass or plastic tray. (We purchased a plastic photo-developing tray on the digital camera retailer the place we purchased the speedy fixer.) Slip the copper face-up into the chemical. Rock the tray gently to maintain the answer shifting throughout the copper’s floor, as proven.

How to age copper

After a couple of minutes, the floor will start to darken. Proceed agitating till the copper takes on roughly the colour of cinnamon. (Reaching this closing shade can take 10 minutes or so.) Do not let the colour get too darkish — that hides the copper look.

Rinse either side underneath operating water, after which stand the piece on edge to air dry. You’ll be able to assist it together with a hair dryer or warmth gun, however do not rub the floor. After the copper dries, verify the colour. In case you’ve hit one you want, spray on clear gloss lacquer or acrylic coating.

You’ll be able to reimmerse the metallic to darken it. To lighten it, although, you will need to sand to shiny metallic and begin over once more.

Give your ornamental metals, be they silver, copper, or forged iron, a delightfully distressed makeover with these straightforward DIY strategies.

How to age copper

In the present day, many householders attempt to realize a lived-in vibe with their inside design selections. Who desires furnishings that appears prefer it simply got here out of a catalog? Or a pallet challenge that trumpets the truth that it was made simply final weekend? Those self same DIYers who go to nice lengths to misery wooden so their furnishings radiate classic attraction additionally don’t need brand-new metallic accents that stick out like a sore thumb. The answer? Age the metallic to hide the latest genesis of your furnishings whereas making a placing ornamental end. In contrast to such supplies as glass or tile, metallic might even look higher with a bit of vintage patina than it does in its unblemished state—a lot so that you simply may need to age all of your metallic accents. Fortuitously for DIYers, the prospect of growing older metallic your self doesn’t have to provide you grey hairs. Learn on to learn to take the shine away from silver, copper, and forged iron with a minimal of steps and supplies.

That will help you determine the easiest way to age metallic, we outlined the next three strategies:

  1. Place silver in a freezer bag with the yolk of a hard-boiled egg to realize a wealthy patina.
  2. Soak copper in an answer of water and speedy fixer to age the metallic. Or, for a blue-green patina, soak it in a mix of water, vinegar, and salt.
  3. Flippantly ding forged iron with a hammer, or run sandpaper throughout the floor.

How to age copper

Technique #1: When Sulfur Met Silver

NOTE: This method works finest on sterling silver of 92.5% purity or decrease.


Earlier than growing older silver, hand-wash it with cleaning soap and chilly water to take away floor oils. Placed on a clear pair of gloves earlier than dealing with the washed silver to forestall the oil in your fingers from transferring to the piece.


Carry a pot of water to a boil, toss in a single egg (or two, for bigger silver items), and prepare dinner till the egg is tough boiled. Take away the egg from the pot and crack it open, separating the yolk from the white.


Place the silver right into a freezer bag with the crumbled yolk of the hard-boiled egg, however don’t let the yolk contact the silver. (In the event that they contact, you might find yourself with recognizing in your new patina.) For bigger items of silver, you might want to make use of a paper towel to separate the metallic from the yolk. Seal the bag, and let it sit for six to eight hours. The silver will quickly start the growing older course of, because of the sulfur within the eggs.


It’s time to unleash the facility of science! Open the bag outside so the sulfur fumes don’t invade your house. Take away and clear the aged silver with cleaning soap and water, gently buffing the excessive factors with a clear material to disclose a wealthy patina.

How to age copper

Technique #2: Photograph-End Copper

MATERIALS AND TOOLS Out there on Amazon
– Cleaning soap
– Water
– Metal wool
– Shallow plastic tray
– Speedy fixer (present in digital camera shops)
– Vinegar (elective)
– Salt (elective)
– Gloves
– Delicate-bristle brush
– Copper sealant spray


Clear the copper with cleaning soap and water to take away floor residue, then scrub it with metal wool.


Fill a shallow plastic tray with an answer of two tablespoons water and a tablespoon speedy fixer—a fluid used for photographic processing. In case you want copper with a blue-green complexion, swap the speedy fixer for an answer of equal components vinegar and salt.


Placed on gloves, and submerge the clear copper within the resolution for as much as 10 minutes. You can too use a brush to coat the floor of the copper.


Take away the copper from the bowl and let it air-dry fully to disclose both a darkish patina or a timeworn turquoise tint, relying on the substances you chose in Step 2.


Rinse the copper in cool water. Permit the piece to dry absolutely earlier than coating it with a fast-drying copper sealant spray, which can keep its magnificence for years to come back.

How to age copper

Technique #3: Make an Impression on Forged Iron

MATERIALS AND TOOLS Out there on Amazon
– Hammer
– Sandpaper (elective)
– Mud masks (elective)
– Delicate material
– Paintbrush
– Antiquing resolution
– Forged iron paint
– Clear varnish


Lay any ornamental piece of forged iron flat on a sturdy floor. Utilizing the claw finish of a hammer, ding random places on the forged iron till you may have achieved a rugged, uneven sample. In case you want a much less rough-hewn patina, run a bit of fine-grit sandpaper throughout the forged iron to create extra refined blemishes. Don’t neglect to put on a mud masks when utilizing sandpaper so that you don’t inhale any advantageous metallic shavings.


Wipe off any metallic mud from the forged iron with a smooth material.


To finish the look of a realistically rustic cast-iron floor, apply store-bought antiquing end or a couple of coats of forged iron–pleasant paint, adopted by clear varnish.

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Friday, January 29, 2010

“Age” Brass and Copper

How to age copper

A DS authentic piece created utilizing a number of brass patina and rusting strategies.

  1. Pour some vinegar right into a plastic container and add a tablespoon or two of salt.
  2. Combine effectively.
  3. Put your items in combination and allow them to soak for a minimum of a couple of minutes.
  4. Take away the items and dry with paper towel.
  5. Place them on a cookie sheet and put them right into a 450 diploma oven.
  6. Monitor the change, which ought to happen in a couple of minutes.
  7. Take away the items and let cool.
  1. Soak your items within the resolution for 1 hour.
  2. Place them on a darkish non-greased baking sheet and right into a 450 diploma oven for 20 minutes.
  3. Take the the new brass items from the oven and place them into the vinegar resolution.
  4. Take away them from the answer in a couple of minutes or when the specified patina has been achieved.
  5. Shake them off, rigorously! Let air dry.
  6. Use very advantageous metal wool to shine and create highlights as desired.
  1. For bigger items, choose a container (with a lid) that can maintain your merchandise.
  2. Place a smaller container (ideally glass) inside the underside of your massive container, and fill the smaller container with ammonia.
  3. Place the brass within the massive container so it doesn’t contact the ammonia (liquid ammonia will kind spots on the brass).
  4. Seal it tightly.
  5. Monitor the piece day by day and alter the liquid ammonia resolution day-after-day to keep up efficiency; in case you are environmentally inclined, you may neutralize the used ammonia with baking soda and water earlier than disposing of it.
  6. Take away the brass when you’re pleased with the end.

No matter methodology you resolve to strive, after the brass has the patina you need and has dried completely, a coat or two of varnish or matte lacquer sealant will assist keep the colour you labored so exhausting to realize. In any other case, the patina will proceed to develop because the brass is uncovered to oxygen within the air. Keep in mind to seal the entrance and the again of the piece.

A footnote from a latest expertise — I used to be utilizing white wine vinegar and salt on a few items of what I assumed was copper; that exact vinegar modified the metallic to a inexperienced end inside mere minutes. If I had rinsed the piece when it had reached the specified shade, it might have been advantageous, however after a number of hours the metallic had modified to many odd colours together with pink. I may speculate concerning the precise metallic content material of the piece, however on a separate strive, I then found how you can to cease the method and hold the end.

Sprinkle dry baking soda on it, rinse it rigorously, then pat it dry with out wiping; this stops the event and as soon as the metallic dries, you’ll nonetheless have a pleasant verdigris on the metallic (a minimum of I did) and the acidity will likely be neutralized.

Aged copper shows a protecting layer of wealthy blue-green patina, often known as verdigris. Slightly than ready the 5 to seven years it takes for brand spanking new copper to naturally develop a patina when uncovered to the weather, you may get that look now. A stunning patina is feasible by way of using a patina package or do-it-yourself concoctions.

The Patina Look

The patina that grows on aged copper is the results of publicity to the weather, particularly areas near saltwater. Salt within the air, mixed with water and oxygen, reacts with the copper metallic by way of oxidation. The response modifications the metallic floor by forcing a few of the copper molecules to bond with oxygen, salt or different molecules. Compounds that make up verdigris embody copper sulfate, copper carbonate and chloride salts. Copper sulfate is a shiny blue-green shade and provides most verdigris its stunning shade.

Create a Do-it-yourself Patina

Begin by washing the copper with delicate dish cleaning soap to take away all oils that will resist the patina. A little bit baking soda rubbed into the copper alongside the grain helps scrub away microscopic particles. After rinsing, soak the copper in a 1-to-1 ratio of white vinegar and salt in a small bowl for half an hour. The moist copper is positioned on a towel to air dry. Crafters might sprinkle a small quantity of salt on the moist copper to encourage the patina to develop. This course of might take anyplace from a couple of hours to some days to develop.

Use a Patina Equipment

A patina package places patinas of quite a lot of colours, together with the normal blue-green, purple, brown and black, on new copper inside a couple of hours. Earlier than making use of the patina, clear the copper completely with a cleansing pad and an abrasive. Rinse the metallic with clear water and dry. Discover each acid-free sizzling utility patina kits and acid-containing chilly utility patina kits in shops. Apply the patina with a brush, sponge or curler. Place it in oblique gentle for 2 to 3 hours whereas the patina develops.


Working with a business patina package that comprises acids could also be hazardous. Put on protecting rubber gloves, masks and security glasses throughout the utility course of. Work outside, underneath a air flow hood or in a well-ventilated space, to keep away from inhaling acid fumes. Sizzling utility patina kits require using a warmth gun to heat the metallic, which may trigger burns to the pores and skin. Deal with the patina rigorously; it’s softer than the copper and might flake off simply. A coating of clear polyurethane spray helps shield the patina on completed initiatives.

The pure or chemical oxidation of copper creates quite a lot of shades, from black to shiny blue-green, on its floor. Savvy crafters can purposely oxidize their copper jewellery and initiatives to realize an attractive vintage look.

Reason for Oxidation

Oxidation is a naturally occurring course of whereby copper loses electrons to oxygen or different molecules. This modifications the copper floor into verdigris, which is made up of numerous compounds, together with copper oxide, copper carbonate, copper chloride and copper acetate. The floor layer ultimately covers and protects the remainder of the metallic beneath. There are many different oxidizing brokers that may have an effect on copper.

Supplies for Oxidizing Copper

Bowls, towels, baggage and utensils are a few of the instruments you could oxidize copper. The substances for the method can differ, as a result of there are lots of oxidizers that react with the metallic. Egg, salt, vinegar, ammonia — and business merchandise, similar to Liver of Sulphur. These substances are utilized in other ways to hurry up the pure oxidation course of that happens when copper is uncovered to the air and water.

Oxidizing Pennies with Vinegar

As a easy challenge to check out the method, use vinegar and salt to oxidize pennies. Combine up an answer of white vinegar and salt in a bowl. Place pennies within the bowl for a number of minutes. Whereas within the bowl, the uninteresting pennies will begin to brighten up as their copper oxide layer is eliminated. Take the shiny pennies out of the salt and vinegar resolution and place them, nonetheless moist, onto a paper towel. Depart them out in a single day to get delicate outcomes — they need to develop a verdigris patina. Soak the paper towel within the salt and vinegar resolution, and place the pennies on it for as much as per week to get extra intense outcomes.

Defending the Patina

Verdigris shouldn’t be as sturdy as copper, so it might want some defending to protect the layer. Very thick layers of verdigris can flake off of the copper in spots when washed, so rinse copper gently. Pat the merchandise dry, and permit it to air dry till it is fully bone-dry. Take into account making use of a lightweight coating of clear polyurethane spray to assist shield jewellery and different crafts. This coating might also assist improve a few of the blue-green patina.

A vivid verdigris tone can cowl any paintable floor, because of a two-part paint utility. The bottom paint comprises copper bits, so any merchandise can have this wealthy look. And oxidizer turns the paint the colour of patinated copper.

Step 1

Apply The Copper Surfacer

Photograph by Lisa Shin

Combine the copper surfacer effectively to make sure that the metallic particles are evenly distributed. Apply a skinny coat utilizing one of many foam brushes. Let dry (about an hour) earlier than making use of a second coat. Repeat till the floor has a good protection of copper.

Step 2

Apply The Patina Answer

Photograph by Lisa Shin

Whereas the ultimate coat continues to be cheesy, use the second foam brush to use the blue patina resolution, ensuring to put on protecting gloves. Use liberally for a extra total blue shade or sparingly for a extra nuanced blue patina.

Step 3

Add Extra Answer

Photograph by Lisa Shin

The colour will begin to change inside 10 to 15 minutes. Add extra resolution for a larger shade change; if the surfacer is now not cheesy, brush a brand new coat on the components you need to paint, and reapply the answer.

Step 4

Add Extra Surfacer

Photograph by Lisa Shin

As soon as dry, you may add extra surfacer with a sponge brush if a much less total blue look is desired.

Step 5

Apply a Sealer

Photograph by Lisa Shin

For out of doors use, coat with a sealer, which can halt additional oxidation of the surfacer.