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How to add a website to a bibliography

The most basic entry for a website consists of the author name(s), webpage title, website title, *sponsoring institution/publisher, publication date, and DOI or URL.

Author Last Name, First Name. “Webpage Title.” Website Title, *Sponsoring Institution/Publisher, Publication Date, DOI or URL.

Owoseje, Toyin. “Britney Spears Apologizes to Fans for ‘Pretending’ to be OK in her Conservatorship.” CNN, 25 June 2021, cnn.com/2021/06/25/entertainment/britney-spears-conservatorship-instagram-intl-scli/index.html.

*If the sponsoring institution or publisher’s name is the same as the website title, do not include it. MLA prefers to avoid duplicating information in citations.

The first author’s name should be reversed, with a comma after the last name, followed by a period
after the first name (or any middle name). The name should not be abbreviated and should be written
exactly as it appears on the website. Titles and affiliations associated with the author
should generally be omitted. A suffix, such as a roman numeral or Jr./Sr. should appear after the
author’s given name, preceded by a comma.

For a page with two or more authors, list them in the order they appear on the website.
Only the first author’s name should be reversed, while the others are written in normal order.
Separate author names by a comma, and place the word “and” before the last author’s name.

Sanchez, Ray, and Eric Levenson. “Derek Chauvin Sentenced to 22.5 Years in Death of George Floyd.” CNN, 25 June 2021, cnn.com/2021/06/25/us/derek-chauvin-sentencing-george-floyd/index.html.

For pages with three or more authors, reverse the first author’s name as described above and follow it with a comma and the abbreviation “et al.” Do not italicize “et al.” in parenthetical citations or works-cited list entries.

Rebaza, Claudia, et al. “John McAfee Was Not Suicidal, Says Widow of Antivirus Software Magnate.” CNN, 25 June 2021, cnn.com/2021/06/25/tech/john-mcafee-wife-janice-intl/index.html.

If the article was written by a news service or organization, include the name in the author position and remove any introductory
articles (e.g., A, An, The) from the name.

Associated Press. “Obama Inaugurated as President.” CNN, 21 Jan. 2009, cnn.com/2009/01/21/politics/obama-inaugurated-as-president/index.html.

If no author is available, begin the citation with the webpage title.

“Obama Inaugurated as President.” CNN, 21 Jan. 2009, cnn.com/2009/01/21/politics/obama-inaugurated-as-president/index.html.

The webpage title should be placed within quotation marks. Place a period after the webpage title within the
quotation marks. The webpage title is followed by the name of the larger website container in italics, and it’s usually followed by a comma and any additional information such as version, number, publisher, publication date, or URL. The punctuation before the version element varies depending on whether the webpage is part of a larger work or “container.” When it is part of a larger work, use a comma followed by the version. When it is a work that stands alone, use a period followed by the version.

Smith, John. “Obama Inaugurated as President.” CNN, Version 12.1.1., 21 Jan. 2009, cnn.com/2009/01/21/politics/obama-inaugurated-as-president/index.html.

Include the sponsoring institution or publisher with a comma after the website title (or version number, if available). The sponsoring institution/publisher can usually be found at the bottom of the website in the footer. You may omit the publisher’s name when there is no publisher or when the publisher name isn’t required (for example, when the publisher title matches the website title or the website doesn’t list the publisher responsible for producing the work).

Smith, John. “Obama Inaugurated as President.” CNN, 21 Jan. 2009, cnn.com/2009/01/21/politics/obama-inaugurated-as-president/index.html.

Next, state the publication date of the webpage. In works-cited list entries, use only the day-month-year style. Month names should be abbreviated, except for May, June, and July, and followed by a period. In some cases, a specific date might not be available, and the date published may only be specific to a month or even year. Provide whatever date information is available. When using seasons in the date, lowercase the season (spring 2021 not Spring 2021). If there is no date available, you may omit the publication date element from your citation. However, you may wish to include an access date in the supplemental element slot after the URL.

Go back a generation and you’ll find that websites were rarely used as a source for academic essays and papers. Crazy to think about, right? Instead, students relied almost entirely on good old-fashioned paper sources such as textbooks, books and journals.

Of course, now it’s difficult to imagine life without the Internet. And the rise of the smartphone means that we all literally have a world wide web of information at our fingertips, 24/7! This easy-to-access information is super useful for school and life. However, just as with traditional sources, any website you use while researching and writing must be properly referenced. Failure to do this is plagiarism, which, whether accidental or not, can carry strict consequences.

The good news is there’s clear guidance on how you should reference your website sources, depending on which style of citation you’re required to use. APA, MLA and Chicago are three common styles. If you’re unsure which one you should be using, ask your instructor for their preference.

What Information Do I Need?

When researching online, it’s essential that you note the websites you are using as you go—not after when you might forget. It can be very easy to disappear down the Internet rabbit hole and lose track of what information came from where! You could also bookmark important web pages to give yourself an easy online record of your digital sources.

Important note: the Internet contains a wide variety of different types of material that you may need to reference, from articles and blog posts to images and videos. Correctly citing a website will depend on the type of source that you wish to cite. For illustration purposes we’ve used the following article on a website:

  • Author/s name: Janna Anderson and Lee Rainie
  • Article title: The Future of Well-Being in a Tech-Saturated World
  • Website title: Pew Research Center: Internet & Technology
  • Publication date: 17 April 2018
  • Access date: 9 May 2018
  • Website publisher: Pew Research Center
  • URL: http://www.pewinternet.org/2018/04/17/the-future-of-well-being-in-a-tech-saturated-world/

In-Text Citations

In-text citations may also be included in the body of your work to help the reader identify the section that relates to the full citation on your works cited page. These are also known as parenthetical citations, as they’re often enclosed (like this), and MLA refers to them as citations in prose. The format of your in-text citations will vary depending on the citation style you are using.

Let’s take a look at some examples of how to cite a website in MLA, APA and Chicago styles.

How to Cite a Website in APA Style

Full citation:

How to Cite a Website in MLA Style

MLA in-text citation: (Anderson and Rainie)

Full citation:

Anderson, Janna, and Lee Rainie. “The Future of Well-Being in a Tech-Saturated World.” Pew Internet, 17 Apr. 2018, www.pewinternet.org/2018/04/17/ the-future-of-well-being-in-a-tech-saturated-world/.

How to Cite a Book in Chicago Style Format (footnote/bibliography style)

Janna Anderson and Lee Rainie, “The Future of Well-Being in a Tech-Saturated World,” Pew Internet , April 17, 2018, accessed May 9, 2018, http://www.pewinternet.org/2018/04/17/the-future-of-well-being-in-a-tech-saturated-world/.

Bibliography:

Anderson, Janna, and Lee Rainie. “The Future of Well-Being in a Tech-Saturated World.” Pew Internet , April 17, 2018. Accessed May 9, 2018. http://www.pewinternet.org/2018/04/17/the-future-of-well-being-in-a-tech-saturated-world/.

Don’t disappear down the Internet rabbit hole! Make a note of all the websites you use during your research and use the handy online tool at Cite This For Me to create quick and easy website citations.

  • Make a list to keep track of ALL the books, magazines, and websites you read as you follow your background research plan. Later this list of sources will become your bibliography.

  • author name
  • title of the publication (and the title of the article if it’s a magazine or encyclopedia)
  • date of publication
  • the place of publication of a book
  • the publishing company of a book
  • the volume number of a magazine or printed encyclopedia
  • the page number(s)
  • author and editor names (if available)
  • title of the page (if available)
  • the company or organization who posted the webpage
  • the Web address for the page (called a URL)
  • the last date you looked at the page

    The bibliographic information for different types of resources are located in different places, so you may need to do some detective work to get all of the information for your bibliography. Try looking in these places:

  • the title page of a book, encyclopedia or dictionary
  • the heading of an article
  • the front, second, or editorial page of the newspaper
  • the contents page of a journal or magazine
  • the header (at the top) or footer (at the bottom) of a Web site
  • the About or the Contact page of a Web site

What is a Bibliography?

A bibliography is a listing of the books, magazines, and Internet sources that you use in designing, carrying out, and understanding your science fair project. But, you develop a bibliography only after first preparing a background research plan — a road map of the research questions you need to answer. Before you compose your bibliography, you will need to develop your background research plan.

With your background research plan in hand, you will find sources of information that will help you with your science fair project. As you find this information it will be important for you to write down where the sources are from. You can use the Bibliography Worksheet to help you, just print out a few copies and take them with you to the library. As you find a source, write in all of the necessary information. This way, when you are typing your bibliography you won’t need to go back to the library and find any missing information. The more information you write down about your source, the easier it will be for you to find if you want to read it again.

When you are writing your report, you will use the sources in your bibliography to remind you of different facts and background information you used for your science fair project. Each time you use some information from a source, you will need to cite the source that it came from. To cite a source, simply put the author’s name and the date of the publication in parentheses (Author, date) in your text. If the person reading your report wants to find the information and read more about it, they can look up the reference in your bibliography for more detail about the source. That is why each source you use must be listed in a detailed bibliography with enough information for someone to go and find it by themselves.

Your bibliography should include a minimum of three written sources of information about your topic from books, encyclopedias, and periodicals. You may have additional information from the Web if appropriate.

Examples of Bibliography Formats

There are standards for documenting sources of information in research papers. Even though different journals may use a slightly different format for the bibliography, they all contain the same basic information. The most basic information that each reference should have is the author’s name, the title, the date, and the source.

Different types of sources have different formatting in the bibliography. In American schools, the two most commonly used guidelines for this formatting are published by the MLA (Modern Language Association) and the APA (American Psychological Association).

The MLA guidelines call for the bibliography to be called Works Cited. Science Buddies has summarized some of the most common MLA formats for your use: MLA Format Examples.

The APA guidelines call for the bibliography to be called the Reference List. Science Buddies has summarized some of the most common APA formats for your use: APA Format Examples.

Your teacher will probably tell you which set of guidelines to use.

On the Science Buddies website we use the following guidelines:

  • APA format for online sources
  • MLA format for all other sources
  • APA (author, date, page) format for citations in our articles

Getting Started

Download and print the Science Buddies Bibliography Worksheet. Keep several copies with you and fill in the information as you do your research. When you are finished, type the information from the worksheet into a formatted bibliography using the examples listed above.

Michael Crider
How to add a website to a bibliographyMichael Crider
Writer

Michael Crider is a veteran technology journalist with a decade of experience. He spent five years writing for Android Police and his work has appeared on Digital Trends and Lifehacker. He’s covered industry events like the Consumer Electronics Show (CES) and Mobile World Congress in person. Read more.

How to add a website to a bibliography

Properly formatting bibliographies has always driven students crazy. With modern versions of Microsoft Word, though, the process is streamlined to the point of almost being automatic, and today we’re going to show you how to add citations and bibliographies to your Word documents.

Note: the techniques we’re going to cover here should work for Microsoft Word 2007 and later. The screenshots are all taken in the latest version of Word 2016, so your version might look slightly different, but it works the same way.

Creating Sources and Adding Citations To Your Text

When you’re working on any Word document, place your cursor where you want the citation to be placed. Switch to the “References” tab on the Ribbon, and then click the “Insert Citation” button.

How to add a website to a bibliography

The popup menu that appears shows any sources you have already added (we’ll get to that in a moment), but to add a new source, just click the “Add New Source” command.

How to add a website to a bibliography

In the Create Source window that appears, you can enter all of the relevant information for just about any source. The default setting for the “Type of Source” dropdown is Book, but just open that dropdown to choose other types of sources like journal articles, web sites, interviews, and so on. So, pick the type of source, fill out the fields, give your source a tag name (typically a shortened version of the title), and then click “OK” to finish the source.

How to add a website to a bibliography

Note: By default, Word uses APA citation style, but it’s not limited to that. If you’re using another citation method for your document, click the “Show All Bibliography fields” option to fill out extra information.

Word adds a citation for your new source to your document. And, the next time you need to cite that particular source, simply click that “Insert Citation” button again. Your source appears on the list (along with any other sources you’ve added). Select the source you want, and Word correctly inserts the citation into the document.

How to add a website to a bibliography

By default, Word uses the APA style for citations, but you can change that by picking another option from the “Style” dropdown right next to the “Insert Citation” button.

How to add a website to a bibliography

Just repeat those steps to add any other sources you need, and to place citations where you want.

Creating Your Bibliography

When your document is finished, you’ll want to add a bibliography that lists all your sources. Head to the end of your document and create a new page using Layout > Breaks > Page Break. Switch over the “References” tab, and click the “Bibliography” button. You can select from a few pre-formatted bibliography styles with headers, or you can click the “Insert Bibliography” option to add one without any header or extra formatting.

How to add a website to a bibliography

Bam! Word adds all the works you cited in your document to the bibliography, in the correct order and format for the writing style you’ve set up.

How to add a website to a bibliography

Back Up and Retrieve Your Sources

What if you frequently write papers on similar topics, and you don’t want to have to re-enter the source information to Word each time? Word has you covered here too. Every time you enter a new source, it’s saved in what Word calls the “master source list.” For each new document, you can retrieve old sources from the master list and apply them to your current project.

On the “References” tab, click the “Manage Sources” button.

How to add a website to a bibliography

The window that appears shows all the sources you’ve used before. Click a source on the left side of the window, and then click “Copy” to apply it to the current document. Repeat this for each source you need, and then click “OK” to finish.

How to add a website to a bibliography

If you’ve entered dozens or hundreds of sources, you can use the search tool at the top of this window to quickly narrow down the list by author, title, year, or the tag you’ve personally applied to the individual source.

If you need to move your source list to another computer and another copy of Word, you’ll find your sources stored in an XML file at the following location (where username is your user name):

After copying that file to another computer, click the “Manage Sources” button in Word on the new computer, and you can browse for the file.

How to add a website to a bibliography

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How to add a website to a bibliography Michael Crider
Michael Crider is a veteran technology journalist with a decade of experience. He spent five years writing for Android Police and his work has appeared on Digital Trends and Lifehacker. He’s covered industry events like the Consumer Electronics Show (CES) and Mobile World Congress in person.
Read Full Bio »

Learn how to easily write a bibliography by following the format outlined in this article.

This resource will help your students properly cite different resources in the bibliography of a research paper, and how to format those citations, for books, encyclopedias, films, websites, and people.

What is a bibliography?

According to Infoplease.com, A bibliography is a list of the sources you used to get information for your report. It is included at the end of your report, on the last page (or last few pages).

How to get started writing your bibliography

You will find it easier to prepare your final bibliography if you keep track of each book, encyclopedia, or article you use as you are reading and taking notes. Start a preliminary, or draft, bibliography by listing on a separate sheet of paper all your sources. Note down the full title, author, place of publication, publisher, and date of publication for each source.

Haven’t started your paper yet and need an outline? These sample essay outlines include a research paper outline from an actual student paper.

General Guide to Formatting a Bibliography from Infoplease.com

Author (last name first). Title of the book. City: Publisher, Date of publication.

Encyclopedia Title, Edition Date. Volume Number, “Article Title,” page numbers.

Author (last name first), “Article Title.” Name of magazine. Volume number, (Date): page numbers.

Author (last name first), “Article Title.” Name of newspaper, city, state of publication. (date): edition if available, section, page number(s).

Full name (last name first). Occupation. Date of interview.

Title, Director, Distributor, Year.

Disc title: Version, Date. “Article title,” pages if given. Publisher.

Author (last name first). “Article title.” Name of magazine (type of medium). Volume number, (Date): page numbers. If available: publisher of medium, version, date of issue.

Author (last name first). “Article title.” Name of newspaper (Type of medium), city and state of publication. (Date): If available: Edition, section and page number(s). If available: publisher of medium, version, date of issue.

Author of message, (Date). Subject of message. Electronic conference or bulletin board (Online). Available e-mail: [email protected] e-mail address

URL (Uniform Resource Locator or WWW address). author (or item’s name, if mentioned), date.

Once you’ve identified a credible website to use, create a citation and begin building your reference list. Citation Machine citing tools can help you create references for online news articles, government websites, blogs, and many other website! Keeping track of sources as you research and write can help you stay organized and ethical. If you end up not using a source, you can easily delete it from your bibliography. Ready to create a citation? Enter the website’s URL into the search box above. You’ll get a list of results, so you can identify and choose the correct source you want to cite. It’s that easy to begin!

If you’re wondering how to cite a website in APA, use the structure below.

Structure:

Author Last Name, First initial. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of web page. Name of Website. URL

Example of an APA format website:

Keep in mind that not all information found on a website follows the structure above. Only use the Website format above if your online source does not fit another source category. For example, if you’re looking at a video on YouTube, refer to the ‘YouTube Video’ section. If you’re citing a newspaper article found online, refer to ‘Newspapers Found Online’ section. Again, an APA website citation is strictly for web pages that do not fit better with one of the other categories on this page.

Social media:

When adding the text of a post, keep the original capitalization, spelling, hashtags, emojis (if possible), and links within the text.

Facebook posts:

Structure: Facebook user’s Last name, F. M. (Year, Monday Day of Post). Up to the first 20 words of Facebook post [Source type if attached] [Post type]. Facebook. URL

Source type examples: [Video attached], [Image attached]

Post type examples: [Status update], [Video], [Image], [Infographic]

Examples:

Gomez, S. (2020, February 4). Guys, I’ve been working on this special project for two years and can officially say Rare Beauty is launching in [Video]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/Selena/videos/1340031502835436/

Life at Chegg. (2020, February 7) It breaks our heart that 50% of college students right here in Silicon Valley are hungry. That’s why Chegg has [Images attached] [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/LifeAtChegg/posts/1076718522691591

Twitter posts:

Structure: Account holder’s Last name, F. M. [Twitter Handle]. (Year, Month Day of Post). Up to the first 20 words of tweet [source type if attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. URL

Source type examples: [Video attached], [Image attached], [Poll attached]

Example: Edelman, J. [Edelman11]. (2018, April 26). Nine years ago today my life changed forever. New England took a chance on a long shot and I’ve worked [Video attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/Edelman11/status/989652345922473985

Instagram posts:

APA citation format: Account holder’s Last name, F. M. [@Instagram handle]. (Year, Month Day). Up to the first 20 words of caption [Photograph(s) and/or Video(s)]. Instagram. URL

Put your research plans in scientific context for your reviewers and convince them that you know your field by citing wisely in your application, including a Bibliography, and including appropriate Appendix materials.

Connect to Science With Citations

Your Bibliography and References Cited Attachment should reflect all the source materials you relied on when preparing any section of the application.

List all the publications you have cited. Read more on citing publications as you write at Referencing Publications.

We suggest that you limit your citations to fewer than 100, but don’t omit essentials or items that highlight the breadth of your knowledge.

If a publication is public, always link to it, or include its NIH PubMed Central identification number in the text.

References show your breadth of knowledge of the field. If you leave out an important work, reviewers may assume you’re not aware of it.

Cite publications that are current and relevant to the project or show that you or your collaborators used your proposed methods. You may also cite interim research products, such as article preprints, to demonstrate transparency as explained in NIH’s Frequently Asked Questions on Interim Research Products. Do not include a copy of publications in the application.

You will list all citations in your Other Project Information Form: Bibliography and References Cited form.

What To Add and Not To Add in an Appendix

NIH limits the information you may put in an Appendix (see list below of allowable materials) and will check that you did not try to bypass page limits by putting materials in the Appendix that belong in the Research Plan.

Guidelines differ by grant type and funding opportunity announcement (FOA), so check your FOA carefully.

The list of allowable Appendix materials is limited to the following items:

  • Blank data collection forms, blank survey forms and blank questionnaire forms–or screenshots thereof
  • Simple lists of interview questions
  • Blank informed consent/assent forms
  • Other items only if they are specified in the FOA as allowable Appendix materials

Applications that include unallowable Appendix materials will be withdrawn and not reviewed.

How To Deal With Images

  • Put images in the Research Strategy where they count toward the page limit.
  • Follow the SF 424 Application Guide for size and resolution information.

Submitting the Appendix

Use the Appendix attachment of the PHS 398 Research Plan form. If you can’t submit the materials electronically, contact the scientific review officer listed in your chosen FOA.

This page contains reference examples for webpages, including the following:

1. Webpage on a news website

  • Parenthetical citations: (Bologna, 2019; Roberts, 2020; Toner, 2020)
  • Narrative citations: Bologna (2019), Roberts (2020), and Toner (2020)
  • Use this format for articles from news websites. Common examples are BBC News, BET News, Bloomberg, CNN, HuffPost, MSNBC, Reuters, Salon, and Vox. These sites do not have associated daily or weekly newspapers.
  • Use the newspaper article category for articles from newspaper websites such as The New York Times or The Washington Post.
  • Provide the writer as the author.
  • Provide the specific date the story was published.
  • Provide the title of the news story in italic sentence case.
  • List the name of the news website in the source element of the reference.
  • End the reference with the URL.

2. Comment on a webpage on a news website

Owens, L. (2020, October 7). I propose a bicycle race between Biden and Trump [Comment on the webpage Here’s what voters make of President Trump’s COVID-19 diagnosis]. HuffPost. https://www.spot.im/s/00QeiyApEIFa

  • Parenthetical citation: (Owens, 2020)
  • Narrative citation: Owens (2020)
  • Credit the person who left the comment as the author using the format that appears with the comment (i.e., a real name and/or a username). The example shows a real name.
  • Provide the specific date the comment was published.
  • Provide the comment title or up to the first 20 words of the comment in standard font. Then in square brackets write “Comment on the webpage” and the title of the webpage on which the comment appeared in sentence case and italics.
  • Provide the name of the news website in the source element of the reference.
  • Link to the comment itself if possible. Otherwise, link to the webpage on which the comment appears. Either a full URL or a short URL is acceptable.

3. Webpage on a website with a government agency group author

National Institute of Mental Health. (2018, July). Anxiety disorders. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/anxiety-disorders/index.shtml

  • Parenthetical citation: (National Institute of Mental Health, 2018)
  • Narrative citation: National Institute of Mental Health (2018)
  • For a page on a government website without individual authors, use the specific agency responsible for the webpage as the author.
  • The names of parent agencies not present in the author element appear in the source element (in the example, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health). This creates concise in-text citations and complete reference list entries.
  • Provide as specific a date as possible for the webpage.
  • Some online works note when the work was last updated. If this date is clearly attributable to the specific content you are citing rather than the overall website, use the updated date in the reference.
  • Do not include a date of last review in a reference because content that has been reviewed has not necessarily been changed. If a date of last review is noted on a work, ignore it for the purposes of the reference.
  • Italicize the title of the webpage.
  • End the reference with the URL.

4. Webpage on a website with an organizational group author

  • Parenthetical citation: (World Health Organization, 2018)
  • Narrative citation: World Health Organization (2018)
  • For a page from an organization’s website without individual authors, use the name of the organization as the author.
  • Provide as specific a date as possible for the webpage.
  • Some online works note when the work was last updated. If this date is clearly attributable to the specific content you are citing rather than the overall website, use the updated date in the reference.
  • Do not include a date of last review in a reference because content that has been reviewed has not necessarily been changed. If a date of last review is noted on a work, ignore it for the purposes of the reference.
  • Italicize the title of the webpage.
  • Because the author of the webpage and the site name are the same, omit the site name from the source element to avoid repetition.
  • End the reference with the URL.

5. Webpage on a website with an individual author

  • Parenthetical citation: (Giovanetti, 2019)
  • Narrative citation: Giovanetti (2019)
  • When individual author(s) are credited on the webpage, list them as the author in the reference.
  • Provide as specific a date as possible for the webpage.
  • Some online works note when the work was last updated. If this date is clearly attributable to the specific content you are citing rather than the overall website, use the updated date in the reference.
  • Do not include a date of last review in a reference because content that has been reviewed has not necessarily been changed. If a date of last review is noted on a work, ignore it for the purposes of the reference.
  • Italicize the title of the webpage.
  • Provide the site name in the source element of the reference.
  • End the reference with the URL.

6. Webpage on a website with a retrieval date

U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). U.S. and world population clock. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved January 9, 2020, from https://www.census.gov/popclock/

  • Parenthetical citation: (U.S. Census Bureau, n.d.)
  • Narrative citation: U.S. Census Bureau (n.d.)
  • When contents of a page are designed to change over time but are not archived, include a retrieval date in the reference.

Webpage references are covered in Section 10.16 of the APA Publication Manual, Seventh Edition

The web is a vast resource for information. When performing research for a written piece, it is not uncommon for individuals to solely rely on the web instead of printed sources. To give proper credit to sources used, information gathered from a website must be cited in the bibliography.

Write the author’s last name, a comma, then the first initial followed by a period and a comma. Example: Milliman, J.,

The first line is flush with the left margin.

Add the year of publication, a comma, and the month of publication, all enclosed in parentheses followed by a period. Example: (2010, May).

Example of steps 1 and 2 together: Milliman, J., (2010, May).

Add the title, capitalizing only the first letter of the first word, followed by a period. Example: How to demonstrate the proper use of the apostrophe.

Example of all three steps together: Milliman, J., (2010, May). How to demonstrate the proper use of the apostrophe.

Add the words “Retrieved from,” then the full URL (web address). Example: Retrieved from https://penandthepad.com/write-bibliography-website-6529310.html

Example of all four steps together: Milliman, J., (2010, May). How to demonstrate the proper use of the apostrophe. Retrieved from https://penandthepad.com/write-bibliography-website-6529310.html

Indent the second line of the citation one-half inch, or five spaces. This is often called a hanging indent.