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How to act ethically

Being ethical means conforming to accepted moral standards. Applied to the work environment, it means that an ethical person has a higher standard than just avoiding a certain behavior or practice because it is illegal. What matters it that it might be the wrong thing to do morally. Ethics can be applied to all aspects of business, from accounting to customer service.

Accounting

Being ethical in accounting means that you keep the business’s financial information correct to the best of your ability, that you don’t falsify records and you don’t move funds around to make the company look more sound than it is. Keeping accurate financial records is crucial in any company, especially those that report the information to stockholders. Shuffling funds among accounts can make a company look healthier than it is by hiding problems; this can mislead investors. Or it can be done to make the company look weaker than it actually is in order to lower the tax burden. Some movement of funds between accounts is completely legal. But if it’s done to give the appearance that the company is doing better or worse than it is, it is considered ethical.

Customer service

Customer service is where a lot of ethical problems occur. Customer service employees, or those working in retail, are not always completely truthful with customers. This is not always illegal, but it is unethical. One example of this would be a bait-and-switch sale, where a company advertises an item is on sale but does not have that item in stock. The goal is to get the customer in the door and then sell him a more expensive product. Customers must be able to depend on the businesses they patronize. Companies that function without ethical practices risk losing their customers.

Quality control

Quality control is used to make sure the product being produced is up to standards. An ethical company would not ship out a product that is not within the industry parameters of safety or quality. But some companies set different standards for the same product depending on whom it is being sold to. This is not illegal and is a normal business practice, but some consider it unethical. An example might be the different standards in tire valves that are sold to car companies and retail locations. The car companies have a higher standard for what they expect in the tire valves they buy. Retail locations often don’t impose the same standards on the manufacturer. Having more than one standard for the same product opens the door for a company to be accused of being unethical because it applies different standards to different classes of customers.

Keith Dooley has a degree in outdoor education and sports management. He has worked as an assistant athletic director, head coach and assistant coach in various sports including football, softball and golf. Dooley has worked for various websites in the past, contributing instructional articles on a wide variety of topics.

When you do something ethically, you do it in an honest and principled way. . If a coffee grower pledges to act ethically, it means they promise to pay farmers fairly, and cosmetic companies run their businesses ethically when they use sustainable ingredients and refuse to test their products on animals.

What makes a person act ethically or unethically?

Being ethical is being conscientious about your choices. If you are ethical, you know what things are good, and perform those good actions instead of malicious actions. To be truly ethical, you must be doing it for self-satisfaction, not a prize.

How do you act ethically in the workplace?

  1. Be a Role Model and Be Visible. Employees look at top managers to understand what behavior is acceptable. .
  2. Communicate Ethical Expectations. .
  3. Offer Ethics Training. .
  4. Visibly Reward Ethical Acts and Punish Unethical Ones. .
  5. Provide Protective Mechanisms.

What it means to act ethically and morally?

While they’re closely related concepts, morals refer mainly to guiding principles, and ethics refer to specific rules and actions, or behaviors. A moral precept is an idea or opinion that’s driven by a desire to be good. An ethical code is a set of rules that defines allowable actions or correct behavior.

What is ethically right and wrong?

Ethics are the standard of what is right and wrong, and they are based on our values. Being ethical requires making a moral judgment, and that’s not always easy. Ethical behavior takes courage and has to be practiced. . If instincts tell you it’s a clear choice between right and wrong, follow your instincts.

Are all ethical moral?

Ethics are dependent on others for definition. They tend to be consistent within a certain context, but can vary between contexts. Usually consistent, although can change if an individual’s beliefs change. A person strictly following Ethical Principles may not have any Morals at all.

Why is man a moral?

Human beings are moral beings because of this built-in demand that we make choices concerning our behavior. We are moral creatures because we have no other choice. We do not decide to be moral, any more than we decide to breathe. We are born moral creatures; we cannot avoid being moral.

by Managing Values on August 24, 2021

How to act ethically

Every workplace action has an ethical dimension because no single action can exist in a vacuum. Everything we do affects others around us. Acting ethically means anticipating our impacts on others and avoiding or seeking to minimise potential negative consequences. To forewarn yourself about workplace ethical challenges, pay attention to:

Context: The context you are in will significantly impact how you act more than your character does. Be on the alert as social pressures encourage us to turn a blind eye to others’ misdoings. We may even take our lead from the actions of others.

Beware of Goals: You may find yourself justifying your behaviour choices as necessary to achieve your goals. If this is the case, you are on a slippery slope to more unethical behaviour. Stop and review your values and use these to guide your actions.

Beware of Loyalty: Many people consider unethical behaviour as only those actions that result in personal gain. This belief causes us to fail to see that our choices are corrupt. Lying to protect others or fudging figures to assist with team targets is unethical, even if there is no personal gain.

Inner thoughts: People behave unethically up to the point that they can make excuses for their behaviour. These excuses are the stories we tell ourselves. The story may be that everyone’s doing it, no one gets hurt, or someone depends on me doing this. Or we may think that it is time pressure that makes us act this way. Tune into your internal dialogue and stay alert to ethical slippage.

Well-being: We are more prone to act in ways we shouldn’t when tired or stressed or being unfairly treated. In these situations, it pays to check with a trusted colleague whether your action is an ethical one.

Framing: How we ‘frame’ a decision can cause us to ignore its ethical dimension. Framing is the context we give a situation or action. If you hear yourself saying ‘it’s only a business decision’, chances are that you are ignoring its ethical aspects. Avoid making decisions based on a narrow range of information.

Friends and family: Be on alert when friends or family ask you to do something. Your loyalty to them may override your duty to your organisation and leave you slipping into questionable actions.

Competing values: Ethical challenges arise from competing values. A typical example is admitting the organisation has made a mistake versus incurring negative media attention. We often pursue short term wins at the expense of harmful consequences. For instance, micromanaging employees at the cost of their social needs. Anticipate, confront and discuss tensions that may arise to enable you to manage them better.

We can’t really discuss ethical leadership without looking first at ethical behavior. Ethical behavior, in its simplest form, is knowing and doing what is right. The key to having an ethically-run company is employing morally upstanding leaders.

In her book, Seven Lenses: Learning the Principles and Practices of Ethical Leadership (2013), author Linda Thornton says that getting employees to act ethically in the workplace starts at the top. In fact, managers should realize that their actions have a trickle-down effect within the company; employees will likely follow the lead and model their actions.

With the awareness about the importance of business ethics, Bayt.com embarked on a research journey into ethical leadership in the Middle East, which we did in collaboration with Canadian University Dubai (CUD). The poll showed that the building blocks for a more sustainable form of leadership in the region indeed exists.

Many define business ethics as being socially responsible

We often hear about the negative impact of making ethical mistakes in business. We hear about fines, boycotts, and very embarrassing scandals that make us doubt the very integrity of organizations we admire.

What we don’t hear often about are the benefits of ethics, and how ethical leadership can have a positive ripple on business- especially when it’s programmed into an organization’s corporate culture. These days, it’s more important than ever before to program ethical leadership by having set ethical guidelines and procedures. Leaders who understand this are more likely to attract top employees and clients. When they set the right example for other employees, they help create an environment that encourages good corporate citizenship, and that motivates employees to perform better and more innovatively.

How to act ethically

The majority agree that everyone is responsible for being ethical

37% of respondents in the Bayt.com poll on ethical leadership in the Middle East view business ethics not just as being legally compliant, but also engaging in socially-responsible activities. 65% see ethics are the responsibility of everyone in the organization.

In your effort to promote ethical behavior throughout the organization, try to develop a transparent work culture to both your employees and stakeholders. Make sure that company information is always available to those who need it, and demonstrate transparency in your decision making process. Employees are much more likely to reciprocate when managers exhibit trustworthy behavior.

How to act ethically

Leaders are setting positive examples

Ethical leaders are those who display reflect a good image of the business, and in turn, attract and retain the best talents. Good news is, 75% of professionals in the Middle East affirm that their managers often set an example of how to do things ethically, as revealed in the Ethical Leadership in the Middle East poll of January 2016.

How to act ethically

Leaders are listening to their employees

Develop an honest work environment where employees can report unethical behavior without fear of punishment. No one wants to be considered a snitch, so gain confidence and trust by providing a private space to discuss any concerns anonymously. Investigate the claims fully, before jumping to conclusions, while maintaining the anonymity of your employee. Then discipline or reprimand, if necessary, in order to establish that some actions are not accepted, and will not be tolerated. 72% of professional respondents in the same poll (ethical leadership in the Middle East) say that their managers discipline or reprimand employees who violate ethical standards.

How to act ethically

Leaders are talking about ethics

According to our poll on diversity of thought in the Middle East, released in October 2015, 88% of professionals in the region are comfortable sharing their views at work, even if it goes against the majority. Today we see more and more leaders who are encouraging their employees to communicate freely and openly and not restricting their thought process and ideas. By doing so, a leader would not only be promoting an environment of honest and open communication, but also showing staff trust and respect. At Bayt.com, for example, we offer an online platform, Sawtna, where employees can voice their concerns. We also conduct town hall meetings across our offices so employees can interact with management and give their feedback on issues that affect them.

How to act ethically

Recommendations: How managers can program ethics into their leadership style

We can’t talk about ethical leadership without providing a guideline to managers who want to program ethics into their corporate culture and leadership style. Here are seven ways managers in the Middle East can promote ethical behavior:

1. Don’t think about ethics as just following laws and regulations. Leaders need to take action and show consumers and other stakeholders that they are actively engaged with ethical issues that matter. Recognize how ethics influences consumers’ reasons to buy from you, and demonstrate a commitment to go beyond mere compliance with laws and regulations. They must prove that they are committed to ethical issues, including human rights, social justice and sustainability.

2. Care about people before profits. Realize that the triple bottom line of people, planet and profits is not only about prioritizing people over profits, but also thinking about how your company affects the planet and adopting environmentally-friendly ways of doing business.

3. Ethical behavior is reciprocal. Employees are more likely to reciprocate when their managers exhibit trustworthy behavior, so it is important to demonstrate fairness and transparency in all your decisions.

4. Democratize decision making. A­sking for feedback and suggestions from your staff will show trust and respect for their opinions.

5. Share and delegate. Sharing information with and delegating tasks to your team will empower and motivate them, yielding tremendous dividends in their creativity.

6. Communicate. Being an ethical manager is about clearly communicating what is acceptable behavior, and what is not, and ensuring your employees understand that you have an open door policy to discuss any situation where an ethical decision is needed. Prevention is better than cure.

7. Have a clear code of conduct. Codes of conducts are required to help employees discern the different shades of grey in the ethical continuum. It is essential that training and explicit discussions about ethical issues are conducted regularly. Include ethical behavior in performance metrics and employee reviews, and set the right cultural tone right from the start.

It is important for managers to focus on accomplishing company goals while developing good relationships in the workplace but it is equally important to focus on ethical conduct among employees. Unethical behavior in the workplace has been around since the beginning of time but that doesn’t mean it has to be acceptable in your company. Every company should have a code of ethics in place that represents the company’s values, responsibilities, and conduct expectations. It should act as a moral compass that guides employees in handling ethical dilemmas. Ethical conduct will ensure that your business maintains a reputation of professional principles and values. Here are a few ways managers can promote ethical conduct among their staff.

Training

You can’t expect your employees to follow your code of ethics if they don’t know what it is. As part of the onboarding process employees should be educated on your code of ethics and why it’s important. They should also have a clear understanding of the ramifications if they fail to behave ethically. Managers should also hold regular workshops on ethics and demonstrate how employees can solve problems ethically. Use examples and role play to give employees opportunities to work through various dilemmas. The more you train employees and place an emphasis on the importance of ethical behavior the more your staff will understand what is expected in the workplace.

Rewards

Oftentimes companies expect ethical behavior but they fail to acknowledge it. If managers really want to promote ethical behavior they need to reward it when they see it. If a manager catches an employee doing something right, they should stop and thank them. Managers could also implement a system where employees can anonymously submit examples of their colleagues behaving ethically. Ethical behavior should be included in performance reviews and managers can encourage it by showing gratitude when they see it.

Lead by Example

If managers want their staff to behave ethically then they must understand that it starts with them. Employees generally follow the examples set forth for them by management. If managers hold themselves to a high standard of ethical behavior then they have credibility when they expect the same thing from their employees. If everyone is on the same page it becomes easier for the team as a whole to adopt the same types of ethical behaviors.

Treat Employees Well

Managers really need to reflect on their current operating methods. If management is emphasizing the importance of ethics at work but doesn’t treat its own employees fairly, it becomes hypocritical. When managers are respectful to their staff they are able to develop a trusting relationship that encourages ethical behavior. Therefore, managers need to consider the company’s decisions to hire, train, promote, and pay employees. They also need to make sure that what they are asking of their employees is reasonable. When managers show that they are invested in the success and well-being of their employees, it creates a company culture that is built on ethical principles.

Unethical behavior in the workplace has been present since man built the first office building. This doesn’t mean you have to accept it on your team or in your company, however. A company’s ethical climate, goals and policies can all have a significant impact on employee behavior. You can help your employees to behave ethically by aligning your company’s management practices with your expectations.

Rewards

Catch employees “doing something right” and reward ethical behavior. For example, you might implement a system in which people can submit anonymous tips telling about employees behaving in a particularly honest way. Show gratitude when someone "blows the whistle" on a practice that could potentially hurt customers or stakeholders. Incorporate ethical standards into employee performance reviews. Encouraging ethical behavior is always easier than confronting unethical behavior.

Expectations

Ensure that your company states its values in the employee handbook and that these values are talked about and implemented in everyday business matters by all employees in a supervisory capacity. Charles Kerns, associate professor of applied behavioral science at the Graziadio School of Business and Management, recommends that companies adopt a number of values that result in an ethical business climate. These values are self-control, wisdom, justice, transcendence, kindness and integrity. For example, the value of self-control can result in the behavior of doing what is right regardless of personal motivations.

Training

Through training, explicitly teach your employees how to behave in an ethical manner. Discuss ethically questionable situations and how to respond to them. Discuss the ramifications – in both the personal and professional arenas – of failing to behave ethically. Emphasize the benefits of ethical behavior, and point out how employees expect others to treat them fairly and with honesty. Training is most effective when role play is a part of the instruction, notes Manhattan College Accounting Professor Walter Baggett.

Policies

Sometimes implementing a policy to prevent unethical behavior is the best option. For example, if workers regularly use the copy machine to make personal copies or steal supplies from the storeroom, you can require a code for the copier and ask the secretary to distribute office supplies as requested. Such policies result in employees not having to put their personal integrity to the test, Baggett said. Consider incorporating ethical behaviors into company policy as well. For example, confidentiality is required of healthcare workers, and breaching it can be grounds for termination. The same can hold true in your company for ethical standards that are essential to a productive work environment.

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Elise Wile has been a writer since 2003. Holding a master's degree in curriculum and Instruction, she has written training materials for three school districts. Her expertise includes mentoring, serving at-risk students and corporate training.

Many aspects of the teaching assistant’s role may create ethical dilemmas of one sort or another. Your roles as adviser, evaluator, exam administrator, authority figure and peer have the potential to become problematic at times, often because they present conflicting demands. Because fairness is a perception based on interpretations of behavior, not intentions, many instructors may inadvertently engage in what students perceive to be unfair behavior.

Although one might expect students to be most concerned with outcome or procedural fairness because it affects their grades, Dr. Rita Rodabaugh has found that students consider violations of interactional fairness to be the most severe. Interactional fairness refers to the nature of the interaction between instructor and students and encompasses impartiality, respect, concern for students, integrity and propriety.

Below we offer tips on how to be fair and ethical in the classroom, thereby avoiding as many classroom problems as possible.

Impartiality. Students expect an instructor to treat everyone in the class equally. Few professors intentionally favor certain students over others, but it is probably impossible not to like some students more than others. Differences in liking may foster differences in interactions, such as allowing certain students to dominate discussions. Even subtle differences in how students are treated may lead to perceptions of partiality where none exist. To avoid giving the impression of partiality, carefully monitor your behavior and interactions with all students.

Respect. Respect involves treating students politely. Ridiculing a student or calling a student’s comment “stupid” is inappropriate in all circumstances. Students expect an instructor to listen to, carefully consider, and give thoughtful replies to their ideas when they challenge the instructor’s views. An instructor who is perceived as impatient or demeaning, either directly through comments or indirectly through tone of voice, facial expressions, or posture, loses students’ respect.

Patience is especially difficult when students actively misbehave in class. However, students also expect instructors to be polite in those situations. Should you face disrespect, try to remain civil and calm, thereby modeling the appropriate behavior for students. It is always appropriate to meet privately with an offending student, during which you can be more direct in communicating expectations for classroom deportment.

Concern for students. Students expect their instructors to care about them and their academic performance. You can demonstrate such concern by learning and using students’ names, talking to them before and after class, carefully answering questions, and inviting students who appear to be having problems with the course to discuss those problems and potential solutions. You also can express concern by giving due consideration to student complaints, taking remedial action when the complaints are valid, and carefully explaining your position when the complaints are not valid.

Integrity. Integrity means being consistent and truthful, and explaining your policies, procedures and decisions and why they are necessary, so that their fairness can be judged and understood. For example, an attendance policy may be justifiable because attendance is correlated with increased learning and better grades. Explaining the educational goals of various types of assignments also can be effective. You also can demonstrate integrity by delivering promised rewards and penalties, and admitting ignorance when appropriate.

Propriety. Propriety means acting in a socially acceptable manner that does not offend students’ sensibilities. Students expect you to follow the rules when interacting with them, even if you believe there might be pedagogical value in breaking them. For example, research indicates that most students find it inappropriate in most or all circumstances for an instructor to tell an off-color story or joke. Likewise, showing an emotionally upsetting film without warning students in advance was considered highly inappropriate.

Students also expect instructors to respect their privacy; most students find it inappropriate to require them to reveal highly personal information in a class discussion. Finally, students expect instructors to maintain an appropriate social distance: 54% of students surveyed in a 1993 study by Patricia KeithSpiegel and colleagues thought it inappropriate for an instructor to date a student and 70% believed it inappropriate for a professor to have a sexual relationship with a student.

Conclusion. Ethical issues are often seen in terms of outright abuse of power or privilege. However, where fairness is concerned, many behaviors that teachers may unthinkingly exhibit on a day-to-day basis, such as sharing personal information about their weekend “activities” or making changes in course content and procedures during the semester, may be perceived quite differently by students. According to Stephen Brookfield, author ofThe Skillful Teacher, perceptions of unfairness can undermine the trust between student and teacher that is necessary for effective learning. It’s important to carefully monitor one’s behavior and policies to ensure that they are not only, in fact, fair but are perceived as fair by students.

How to act ethically

At your workplace, ethics is probably not something that you deal with, or even think about, on a regular basis. You may simply show up, do your assigned work, help customers and co-workers, go back home and repeat.

If you think about it, though, every task you do may come with ethical issues. For example, you may lie on an expense report or tell the customer that yes, you can accommodate the extra work, for extra money or some other kickback. As a writer, you may save time by plagiarizing someone else’s work and hoping to get paid for it as your own.

Every industry deals with ethical issues to some extent, including engineering. Engineers hold noble jobs, as they use their skills and creativity to transform nature into usable structures. With this comes an obligation to keep the safety and welfare of the public in mind when they create bridges, buildings and other structures. If they build something that is unsafe and someone is injured as a result, the engineer could be held liable. They could face fines or even lose their engineering license.

Summary of Engineering Ethics

There are many obligations that engineers must abide by in order to serve the public effectively. Engineers face many ethical issues during the course of their work, including bribes, political corruption, offshoring and environmental issues.

Besides keeping public safety in mind, engineers need to focus on honesty and integrity. Lying to a client or acting deceitfully is immoral. Approving designs and engineering documents that do not meet state or local standards is negligent in that it could put the public at risk. Designs must be safe.

Engineers have a duty to report acts of unethical behavior that they witness. By assisting others in deception, fraud and lies, they are acting unethically, which could jeopardize their career.

Professional development is also important. Engineers also have a duty to advance their careers. Technology and laws are always changing and it is important that they stay abreast of these updates.

Fairness is also expected of engineers. They must treat all clients fairly, regardless of gender, race, age, disability, sexual orientation, economic status and marital status. Unfair competition is also not allowed. Their reputation should be based on their service and not focused on trying to outdo the competition.

Keep Your License With Help From a Tampa Professional Engineers Licensing Lawyer

Engineers are an important part of any construction project. They help create safe designs so that the structures can be used safely by the public. If they approve or create anything that jeopardizes the health and safety of others, they could face administrative actions that could potentially end their career.

Research among accountants across Europe has revealed the extent to which they come under pressure to act unethically – and how likely they are to succumb

How to act ethically

This article was first published in the February 2017 international edition of Accounting and Business magazine.

Professional ethics has become a hot topic in recent years, fuelled by scandals such as Enron and the realisation by professional bodies including ACCA that the importance of acting ethically needed more emphasis in professional training. If finance professionals don’t act in line with laws, tax rules and accounting standards, how can business and society at large put their trust in financial statements or tax returns?

Recognising the interest in professional ethics, the European Federation of Accountants and Auditors for SMEs (EFAA) and the Accountants Association in Poland (SKwP) conducted a survey among accountants in business and practice (mainly small and medium-sized firms). They looked at how often accountants have come under pressure to act unethically and how they responded. The online survey gained 662 responses from 23 countries, with particularly strong participation from accountants in Spain, Germany and Poland.

Ethical dilemma

The resulting report Accounting and Ethics: Pressure Experienced by the Professional Accountant – written by Marie Lang, Anna Karmanska and Robin Jarvis – confirms that pressure is widespread. The majority (64%) of respondents confirmed that they had, during their professional career, been put under pressure to act contrary to their professional ethics or to tax and/or accounting legislation. Some 37% had been the subject of such pressure on five or more occasions.

Accountants in all types of role had come under pressure: internal and external auditors, tax advisers in practice and in business, accountants in practice and in business, bookkeepers and external consultants. Those exerting the pressure included clients and owners of the business or practice, directors or board members, line managers and colleagues or people of similar seniority.

The actions requested typically affected the reporting of the entity’s performance and often its tax position. The most common request (see table) was for the postponement of cost and expense recognition. This was closely followed by pressure to manipulate the value of inventories, and requests to categorise personal expenses as company expenses.

When asked about potential rewards for acting unethically or contrary to legislation, the vast majority (88%) of those responding said they were not offered or given any explicit reward. However, many felt that there was a perceived reward in the sense of a continuing relationship. The researchers suggested that a lack of explicit rewards being offered could indicate that the pressure accountants come under is seen as ‘normal behaviour’ in business.

Some respondents said they had been threatened by the person exerting pressure on them. These threats typically involved some sort of financial loss, such as loss of income to the practice, loss of employment to the individual or the termination of an ongoing relationship.

Levels of resistance

Based on the survey findings, most accountants do not succumb to pressure: 68% (of 304 respondents) did not do as asked. They refused to act for ethical reasons or provided sufficiently strong arguments to persuade those applying the pressure that the actions they wanted were unnecessary. The researchers identified a number of themes in the arguments respondents put forward, including:

  • their need to protect their professional reputation
  • the fact that accountants are bound by professional ethics
  • the requested action not being in line with accounting rules and legislation
  • the idea that accounting professionals cannot be associated with tax evasion.

Some respondents argued that the pressure to act unethically was caused by short-term problems that accountants could help to resolve, enabling appropriate decisions to be taken so that the business could be sustainable in the long term.

A significant minority (32%) did succumb to the pressure put on them to act contrary to their professional ethics or legislation. Many did so because they felt their employment and livelihood were under theat. Some were bullied in the workplace. The survey also revealed that, when respondents came under pressure to act unethically or contrary to legislation more than once, they ultimately left their employment. The researchers therefore concluded that these respondents perceived some sort of moral line that could not continually be crossed.

Those facing difficult situations in the workplace described a sense of feeling alone and without support. Accountants working in businesses felt less supported and more distant from their professional body than those working in professional practices. The researchers also highlighted the finding that respondents were more likely to succumb to pressure when they were acting as an employee within an entity rather than as an external consultant. They therefore concluded that an individual’s ability to put some distance between them and the person applying the pressure helped them to withstand it.

Just over half (51%) of respondents said they had consulted with someone at the time they felt under pressure. They most often turned to a colleague, followed by their professional body or a manager not associated with the issue. Although respondents generally found consultation to be helpful, the researchers found no link between the act of consultation and the respondent’s subsequent actions.

Based on this extensive European survey, it’s clear that finance professionals in business and in practice can expect to come under pressure to act contrary to ethics or legislation during their careers. The good news is that most are likely to withstand such pressure, even though it can create a difficult working environment or even the loss of a job or client. A significant minority are likely to succumb, however – at least the first time pressure is exerted. The inclusion of ethics in professional qualifications and subsequent development activities therefore remains vitally important, not only to help individual finance professionals to withstand pressure, but also to defend the reputation of the profession as a whole.